19. FEDERALISM & RELATED Qn :(2011-2020)


In India, if a religious sect/community is given the status of a national minority, what special advantages it is entitled to?

1. It can establish and administer exclusive educational institutions.

2. The President of India automatically nominates a representative of the community to Lok Sabha.

3. It can derive benefits from the Prime Minister’s 15-Point Programme.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

ANS: c


Which of the following is/are the function/functions of the Cabinet Secretariat?

  1. Preparation of agenda for Cabinet Meetings.
  2. Secretariat assistance to Cabinet Committees.
  3. Allocation of financial resources to the Ministries.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 2 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3



  • The Cabinet Secretariat is under the direct charge of the Prime Minister. The administrative head of the Secretariat is the Cabinet Secretary who is also the ex-officio Chairman of the Civil Services Board.
  • The Cabinet Secretariat is responsible for the administration of the Government of India (Transaction of Business) Rules, 1961 and the Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules 1961, facilitating smooth transaction of business in Ministries/Departments of the Government by ensuring adherence to these rules.
  • The Cabinet Secretariat ensures that the President, the Vice President and Ministers are kept informed of the major activities of all Ministries/Departments by means of monthly summary of their activities. Management of major crisis situations in the country and coordinating activities of various Ministries in such a situation is also one of the functions of the Cabinet Secretariat.

The secretarial assistance provided by Cabinet Secretariat to the Cabinet and Cabinet committees, includes:

  1. Convening of the meetings of the Cabinet on the orders of the Prime Minister.
  2. Preparation and circulation of the agenda.
  3. Circulating papers related to the cases on the agenda.
  4. Preparing a record of discussions taken.
  5. Circulation of the record after obtaining the approval of the Prime Minister.
  6. Watching implementation of the decisions taken by the Cabinet.

The Cabinet Secretariat is the custodian of the papers of the Cabinet meetings.

The Cabinet Secretariat is seen as a useful mechanism by the departments for promoting inter-Ministerial coordination since the Cabinet Secretary is also the head of the civil services. While each Ministry is responsible for acting on its own for expeditious implementation of Government policies, plans and programmes, where inter-Ministerial cooperation is involved, they often seek the assistance of the Cabinet Secretariat. The inter-Ministerial problems are dealt with in the meetings of the Committees of Secretaries (COS). Committees are constituted for discussing specific matters and proposals emanating from various Secretaries to the Government and meetings are held under the chairmanship of the Cabinet Secretary. These committees have been able to break bottlenecks or secure mutually supporting inter-Ministerial action. Hence, statement 3 is correct.

  • Alllocation of financial resources is done by the Finance Ministry in consonance with the priorities presented in the budget.


Consider the following statements :

  1. The Chief Secretary in a State is appointed by the Governor of that State.
  2. The Chief Secretary in a State has a fixed tenure.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: A

Justification: Statement 1 is ambiguous and debatable.

Statement 1: Arguments that Governor appoints the Chief Secretary (CS) are:

  • An appointment order is:
    • Essentially an executive action published in the State gazette notification
    • It is officially taken in the name of the Governor as all executive actions of a State government ought to be.
  • He is the highest officer of the state and Governor should ideally be the appointing authority of the CS.
  • So, even if CM “de facto” appoints the Chief Secretary, “de jure” appointment is made by the Governor, which should make statement 1 correct.

But, clearly it’s CM who selects and appoints CS of his state.

We are going with Option A because, the given statement is not  ‘incorrect’ per se (He selects or not, he does appoint CS) If there was absolutely NO ROLE involved from the Governor, the statement would be definitely incorrect.

Statement 2: There is no fixed tenure for the post of Chief Secretary. In this context, the Administrative Reforms Commission, in its report on State Administration in 1969, had recommended that a Chief Secretary should have a minimum tenure of three to four years.

Source: Indian Public Administration: Institutions and Issues


Democracy’s superior virtue lies in the fact that it calls into activity:-

(a)the intelligence and character of ordinary men and women.

(b)the methods for strengthening executive leadership.

(c)a superior individual with dynamism and vision.

(d)a band on dedicated party workers.


The object of government according to Mill’s views, being the attainment of values and virtues in men , their self-development, it is essential that the government should be of those whose self development is being sought. This is only possible if the people participate in the making and working of their government or the government is truly representative.

‘Virtue and intelligence should become genuine attributes of character in a citizen…..and then through participation , people at large , would be able to control the rulers by influencing the character and direction of public policy’.


Which one of the following is not a feature to Indian federalism?

(a)There is an independent judiciary in India.

(b)Powers have been clearly divided between the Centre and the States.

(c)The federating units have been given unequal representation in the Rajya Sabha.

(d)It is the result of an agreement among the federating units


The Constitution of India establishes a federal system of government. It contains all the usual features of a federation, viz., two government, division of powers, written Constitution, super-macy of Constitution, rigidity of Constitution, independent judiciary and bicameralism.

Moreover, the term ‘Federation’ has nowhere been used in the Constitution. Article 1, on the other hand, describes India as a ‘Union of States’ which implies two things: one, Indian Federation is not the result of an agreement by the states; and two, no state has the right to secede from the federation.


Which one of the following reflects the most appropriate relationship between law and liberty?

(a)If there are more laws, there is less liberty.

(b)If there are no laws, there is no liberty.

(c)If there is liberty, laws have to be made by the people.

(d)If laws are changed too often, liberty is in danger.



  1. One common agreement between Gandhism and Marxism is

(a) The final goal of a stateless society

(b) Class struggle

(c) Abolition of private property

(d) Economic determinism

Answer: A


In the context of India which one of the following is the characteristic appropriate for Bureaucracy?

(a) An agency for widening the scope for parliamentary democracy

(b) An agency for strengthening the structure of federalism

(c) An agency for facilitating the political stability and economic growth

(d) An agency for the implementation of public policy

Answer: D


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