1.ENUMERATE THE PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF INLAND WATER TRANSPORT IN INDIA. (2016)
2.WHAT IS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF INDUSTRIAL CORRIDORS IN INDIA? IDENTIFYING INDUSTRIAL CORRIDORS, EXPLAIN THEIR MAIN CHARECTERISTICS. (2018)
3.HOW IS EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE URBAN MASS TRANSPORT KEY TO THE RAPID ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF INDIA? (2019)
MODEL ANSWERS OF THE ABOVE QUESTIONS
1.ENUMERATE THE PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF INLAND WATER TRANSPORT IN INDIA.
- India has a large network of water bodies in the form of rivers, canals, backwaters, and creeks. The total navigable length is 14,500 km, out of which about 5,200 km of the river and 4,000 km of canals can be used by mechanized crafts.
- In water-based transport generally, fuel costs are low and environmental pollution is lower than in transport by road, rail, or air. The waterway is naturally available, which has to be ‘trained’, maintained, and upgraded.
- Water Flow: Due to Industrial, Agriculture and habitation the water flows have been decreased over the years this also may have decreased due to impact of dams of on the rivers.
- Inadequate water channel Depth: Large vessels cannot traverse without adequate waters in the rivers. This along with the seasonal dependency of rivers makes operation of many ports difficult
- Excessive Siltation:-Deforestation and erosion activity of the river leads to problem of siltation making navigation difficult.
- Poor Skills and low technology adaptation:-Lack of automation in processes and low multi operation skills affect efficient utilisation of ports
- It is a slower mode as compared to Rail and Road by its very nature. So improper navigational aids further hurt its competitiveness with other modes.
- Water transport is not only environment-friendly but also cheaper than other modes of transport. Currently, logistics cost in India is one of the highest among major countries –as per the reports it is 18% in India versus 8-10% in China and 10-12% in European Union.
- The acquisition of land for national and State highways is difficult and the cost of construction of roads, flyovers and bridges is high. So, water transport is good alternative.
- It will help in the generation of millions of job opportunities.
- It will boost the maritime trade of the states and augment their economies.
- There is a huge potential for domestic cargo transportation as well as for cruise, tourism and passenger traffic.
Steps taken to tap the potential:
- Jal Marg Vikas Project (JMVP) and Sagarmala are measures taken by Government to support inland water transportation
- The Indian Government should focus more and put some special efforts and funds on the development of commercially significant IWT.
- It requires the maintenance of a specified water depth and width depending upon the size of vessels expected to use that waterway. This necessitates the release of adequate discharges.
- There is a strong need to provide effective rail, road and coastal connections from the waterways for multi-modal logistics. The terminals should be located close to industrial hubs or consumption centers and should provide connectivity to both rail and Road.
- Preservation of existing canals, lakes etc. is an essential ingredient of environmental protection. Inland waterway should not pollute the water way itself.
- National waterways provide a cost-effective, logistically efficient and environment-friendly mode of transport, whose development as a supplementary mode would enable diversion of traffic from over-congested roads and railways. Hence, the waterways project deserves better regulation and development across the country.
2.WHAT IS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF INDUSTRIAL CORRIDORS IN INDIA? IDENTIFYING INDUSTRIAL CORRIDORS, EXPLAIN THEIR MAIN CHARECTERISTICS.
- An industrial corridor is basically a corridor comprising of multi-modal transport services that would pass through the states as main artery.
- Freight cargo from industrial and National Investment and Manufacturing Zones (NIMZs) located upto a distance of 100-150 km on both sides of this main artery are brought to the industrial corridor via rail and road feeder links that provides last mile connectivity.
- This will lower costs of logistics and enable firms to focus on their areas of core competence.
- Industrial corridors constitute world-class infrastructure, such as:
- High-speed transportation network – rail and road
- Ports with state-of-the-art cargo handling equipment
- Modern airports
- Special economic regions/industrial areas
- Logistic parks/transhipment hubs
- Knowledge parks focused on catering to industrial needs
- Complementary infrastructure such as townships/real estate
- Other urban infrastructure along with enabling policy framework.
- Manufacturing is a key economic driver in each of these projects. These projects are expected to play a critical role in raising the share of contribution of the manufacturing sector from approximately 16% to 25% by 2025.
- Smart cities are being developed along these corridors. These cities, with state-of-the-art infrastructure, will house the new workforce that is required to power manufacturing, in turn leading to planned urbanization.
Five Industrial Corridors
- Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC) covers Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra.
- The corridor covers an overall length of 1483 km between the political capital, Delhi, and the business capital, Mumbai, of India.
- The US $100 bn project is being funded by the Government of India, Japanese loans, investments by Japanese firms and through Japan depository receipts issued by Indian companies.
- DMIC Project aims to create futuristic Industrial Cities by leveraging the “High Speed – High Capacity” connectivity backbone provided by the Western Dedicated Freight Corridor (DFC)
- Chennai-Bengaluru Industrial Corridor (CBIC) covers Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.
- It is being funded by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA).
- Bengaluru-Mumbai Economic Corridor (BMEC) covers Maharashtra and Karnataka.
- It is being developed with the help of Britain (UK).
- The Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor Development Corporation (DMICD) and the UK Trade and Investment (UKTI) have been determined as the nodal agencies on the Indian and UK sides respectively.
- Amritsar-Kolkata Industrial Corridor (AKIC) covers Punjab, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal.
- The Project extends from Amritsar (Punjab) to Dankuni (West Bengal) for a length of 1839 kms.
- The Eastern Dedicated Freight Corridor is the backbone of this economic corridor.
- East Coast Economic Corridor (ECEC) covers West Bengal, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Vizag to Chennai segment of this Corridor has been taken as phase-1.
- Vizag-Chennai Industrial Corridor (VCIC) is the first coastal economic corridor in the country.
- It covers more than 800 km of Andhra Pradesh’s coastline and is aligned with the Golden Quadrilateral. It also plays a critical role in the “Act East Policy” of India.
- In September 2016, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) approved loans and grants worth US$ 631 mn for the infrastructural development along the VCIC.
Significance of Industrial Corridors in India
- Economic Significance:
- Avenues for Exports: The Industrial Corridors are likely to lower the cost of logistics thereby increasing the efficiency of industrial production structure. Such an efficiency lowers the cost of production which makes the Indian made products more competitive in international markets. The production of export surplus would generate employment opportunities and raise per capita incomes.
- Job Opportunities: Development of Industrial Corridors would attract investments for the development of Industries which is likely to create more jobs in the market. Moreover, people would find job opportunities close to their homes and would not have to migrate to far-off places (would prevent distress migration).
- These corridors would provide necessary logistics infrastructure needed to reap economies of scale, thus enabling firms to focus on their areas of core competence.
- Industrial corridor provides opportunities for private sector investment in the provision of various infrastructure projects associated with the exploitation industrial opportunity.
- Apart from the development of infrastructure, long-term advantages to business and industry along the corridor include benefits arising from smooth access to the industrial production units, decreased transportation and communications costs, improved delivery time and reduction in inventory cost.
- Environmental Significance: The establishment of Industrial Units in a scattered manner along the industrial corridor across the length of the state will prevent concentration of industries in one particular location which exploited the environment beyond its carrying capacity and caused environmental degradation.
- Socio-Economic Significance: The cascading effect of industrial corridors in socio-economic terms are many such as setting up of industrial townships, educational institutions, hospitals. These will further raise the standards of human development.
- Availability of jobs locally would help in preserving family as an institution. This will also increase social integration in the country
Challenges Associated with Industrial Corridors
- Land Acquisition: Since the industrial corridor would cut across the length of the state, acquisition of land has been slow because of legal hurdles and the amount of compensation.
- India’s taxation regime needs to clearly define the tax liabilities of foreign firms operating in India as permanent establishments and otherwise.
- Macroeconomic stability: It is necessary to have a stable exchange rate so that foreign players with investments in India can avoid currency risks.
- India needs to clearly lay down ground rules for cancellation of licenses in Bilateral Investment Treaties which could later create confusion as in case of Antrix-Devas deal.
- Massive investment in industrial corridor will pave the way for large human displacement and destruction of fertile agricultural land.
- Fear of widening Rural-urban gap in terms of Human Development, economic well-being and standards of living.
National Investment & Manufacturing Zones
- National Investment & Manufacturing Zones (NIMZs) are one of the important instruments of National Manufacturing Policy, 2011. NIMZs are envisaged as large areas of developed land with the requisite eco-system for promoting world class manufacturing activity.
- The main objective of Special Economic Zones is promotion of exports, while NIMZs are based on the principle of industrial growth in partnership with States and focuses on manufacturing growth and employment generation. NIMZs are different from SEZs in terms of size, level of infrastructure planning, governance structures related to regulatory procedures, and exit policies.
- So far the Government has granted ‘in-principle’ approval to the fourteen NIMZs (outside the DMIC region). These are:
- Nagpur in Maharashtra
- Prakasam in Andhra Pradesh
- Chittoor in Andhra Pradesh
- Medak in Telangana etc
- Industrial corridors will help India’s efforts to lead the world in the fourth wave of industrial revolution. Effective execution of this plan could make India take a major leap in the race of development.
3.HOW IS EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE URBAN MASS TRANSPORT KEY TO THE RAPID ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF INDIA?
Indian urban development is proceeding at a rapid pace which has made proper planning a key ingredient to success. One of the main component is urban transport system which makes travelling easier and affordable as well as act as a catalyst for overall development.
Efficient and affordable urban mass transport: Keystone to economic development
- Reduces dependence on personal vehicle
In urban settings, large amount of money is spent on transportation in form of personal vehicles or cars on hire. In long term this results in wastage of money. If there is an affordable and convenient urban transport system, there will be no need for personal vehicles. The saved amount can be used for other investments purposes. This in turn contributes towards economic growth.
- Increase in productive man hours
In large metros such as Bengaluru as well as some of the most congested cities, large amount of time is spent in traffic during transit towards offices. These man hours can be better utilised for productive work. The utilised time from faster and efficient transport system can contribute towards economic growth.
- Health benefits
In countries such as India, pollution is a major component of health problems. Most of the health problems are encountered by exposure to harmful air during travel. This health problem has potential to cause long time drainage of economic resources. If an efficient transport system is available, there are more chances that commuters will avoid harmful road transport system.
- Development of suburban towns
As observed earlier, our cities have been overflowing due to its inability to support such as large population. Considering the need of such cities, there needs to be another solution which can allow people away from city to travel to and fro from the city easily. By developing a fast urban transport system, towns and cities located on the outskirts can be developed.
Time is of utmost importance for urban population. Upcoming projects like Hyperloop or Suburban railway is surely the better option.
Thus, it can be better if public transport system is upgraded to handle large-scale population. This will not only reduce pollution significantly but also make movement fast, easy and efficient.