Polity Syllabus for UPSC | Mains Polity UPSC/IAS Previous year Question decoded (2013-2021)

Mains Polity UPSC/IAS Previous year Question decoded (2013-2021)


[Block-A] Polity

[Block-B] Policies for sectors, services

[Block-C] Governance & groups

[Block-D] IR Diplomacy




[Block-A] Polity

    1. Polity: Basics of Constitution
    2. Polity: The Executive
    3. Polity: Legislature & Elections
    4. Polity: Separation of Powers
    5. Polity: Federalism & Local governance
    6. Polity: Bodies

[Block-B] Policies for sectors, services

    1. Welfare: Policies & Schemes
    2. Welfare: Social Services: Health, Edu, HRD
    3. Welfare: Sectoral Policies (Economy related)

[Block-C] Governance & groups

    1. Governance: Accountability & E-Gov
    2. Groups: Civil Services, NGO, SHG, Pressure Groups

[Block-D] IR Diplomacy

    1. IR/Diplomacy: Neighbors
    2. IR/Diplomacy: Not-Neighbors but affecting interests
    3. IR/Diplomacy: Institutions, Groupings, Agreements



  • [Block-A] : Polity

A1. Basics of Constitution :

A1a. Historical underpinnings & evolution;

A1b. Features,

A1c. Amendments,

A1d. Significant provisions,

A1e. Basic structure;

A1f. Comparison of Indian constitutional scheme with other countries.



A1a. Historical underpinnings & evolution



A1b. Features: Fundamental rights/ DPSP


Right of movement and residence throughout the territory of India are freely available to the Indian citizens, but these rights are not absolute.” Comment. (Answer in 150 words)

Examine the scope of Fundamental Rights in the light of the latest judgement of the Supreme Court on Right to Privacy.
What do you understand by the concept “freedom of speech and expression”? Does it cover hate speech also? Why do the films in India stand on a slightly different plane from other forms of expression? Discuss.
Discuss each adjective attached to the word ‘Republic’ in the preamble. Are they defendable in the present circumstances stances?
Discuss the possible factors that inhibit India from enacting for its citizens a uniform civil code as provided for in the Directive Principles of State Policy.
Khap Panchayats have been in the news for functioning as extra-constitutional authorities, often delivering pronouncements amounting to human rights violations. Discuss critically the actions taken by the legislative, executive and the judiciary to set the things right in this regard.
Does the right to clean environment entail legal regulations on burning crackers during Diwali? Discuss in the light of Article 21 of the Indian Constitution and Judgement(s) of the Apex Court in this regard.
The most significant achievement of modern law in India is the constitutionalization of environment problems by the Supreme Court.” Discuss this statement with the help of relevant case laws. (Answer in 150 words) (2021)
Discuss Section 66A of IT Act, with reference to its alleged violation of Article 19 of the Constitution.

1c. Amendments: M.LAXMIKANT & NEWS



Parliament’s power to (1c)amend the Constitution is a limited power and it cannot be enlarged into absolute power.” In the light of this statement explain whether Parliament under Article 368 of the Constitution can destroy the (1e). Basic Structure of the Constitution by expanding its (1c.) amending power?



1d. Significant provisions,

1e. Basic structure;

1f. Comparison of Indian constitutional scheme with other countries.


(COMPARING Constitution) The judicial systems in India and UK seem to be converging as well as diverging in recent times. Highlight the key points of convergence and divergence between the two nations in terms of their judicial practices.



(COMPARING Constitution) What can France learn from the Indian Constitution’s approach to secularism? (10m 150 words)


(COMPARING Constitution) India and USA are two large democracies. Examine the basic tenants on which the two political systems are based.


  • [Block-A2] : Polity


A2.Polity: The Executive

GS2 Syllabus Topic:

A2.a Executive (structure, organization, functioning);

A2.b Ministries and Departments (of Union and State govts.)


 PREVIOUS YEAR QUESTION sync with syllabus

A2.a Executive (structure, organization, functioning);

Q. Discuss the role of the Vice-President of India as the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. (Answer in 150 words)(2021)


14. Critically examine the procedures through which the Presidents of India and France are elected. (Answer in 250 words)(2021)

Q. 2021 Discuss the essential conditions for exercise of the legislative powers by the Governor. Discuss the legality of re-promulgation of ordinances by the Governor without placing them before the Legislature. (Answer in 250 words)

Q. Under what circumstances can the Financial Emergency be proclaimed by the President of India? What consequences follow when such a declaration remains in force? 2018

Q. Instances of President’s delay in commuting death sentences have come under public debate as denial of justice. Should there be a time limit specified for the President to accept/reject such petitions? Analyze. (2014)

A2.b Ministries and Departments (of Union and State govts.)

  1. The size of the cabinet should be as big as governmental work justifies and as big as the Prime Minister can manage as a team. How far the efficacy of a government then is inversely related to the size of the cabinet? Discuss. (2014)


  • [Block-A3] : Polity

GS2 Syllabus Topic:

  • Union and State Legislatures (structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges; issues therein);

  • Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.


A3.Polity: Legislature & Elections

GS2 Syllabus Topic:

  • A3a. Union and State Legislatures (structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges; issues therein) 

  1. “Once a speaker, Always a speaker’! Do you think the practice should be adopted to impart objectivity to the office of the Speaker of Lok Sabha? What could be its implications for the robust functioning of parliamentary business in India.  (2020)
  2. Rajya Sabha has been transformed from a ‘useless stepney tyre’ to the most useful supporting organ in past few decades. Highlight the factors as well as the areas in which this transformation could be visible. (2020)

Q. 2019

Individual Parliamentarian’s role as the national lawmaker is on a decline, which in turn, has adversely impacted the quality of debates and their outcome. Discuss.(15m 250 words)


The role of individual MPs (Members of Parliament) has diminished over the years and as a result healthy constructive debates on policy issues are not usually witnessed. How far can this be attributed to the anti-defection law, which was legislated but with a different intention?

Q. 2018

Why do you think the committees are considered to be useful for parliamentary work?  Discuss, in this context, the role or the Estimates Committee.


Why do you think the committees are considered to be useful for parliamentary work?  Discuss, in this context, the role or the Estimates Committee.

Q. 2017

The Indian Constitution has provisions for holding joint session of the two houses of the Parliament. Enumerate the occasions when this would normally happen and also the occasions when it cannot, with reasons thereof.

Q. 2017

The Indian party system is passing through a phase of transition which looks to be full of contradictions and paradoxes.” Discuss.

Q. 2014

The ‘Powers, Privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members’ as envisaged in Article 105 of the Constitution leave room for a large number of un-codified and un-enumerated privileges to continue. Assess the reasons for the absence of legal codification of the ‘parliamentary privileges’. How can this problem be addressed?



  • A3b. Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.


Q. Discuss the procedures to decide the disputes arising out of the election of a Member of the Parliament or State Legislature under The Representation of the People Act, 1951. What are the grounds on which the election of any returned candidate may be declared void? What remedy is available to the aggrieved party against the decision? Refer to the case laws. (Answer in 250 words)


On what grounds a people’s representative can be disqualified under the Representation of People Act, 1951? Also mention the remedies available to such person against his disqualification.

Q 2018

In the light of recent controversy regarding the use of Electronic Voting Machines (EVM), what are the challenges before the Election Commission of India to ensure the trustworthiness of elections in India?

Q 2017

‘Simultaneous election to the Lok Sabha and the State Assemblies will limit the amount of time and money spent in electioneering but it will reduce the government’s accountability to the people’ Discuss.

Q 2017

To enhance the quality of democracy in India the Election Commission of India has proposed electoral reforms in 2016. What are the suggested reforms and how far are they significant to make democracy successful?


15. Discuss the role of the Election Commission of India in the light of the evolution of the Model Code of Conduct. (Answer in 250 words)


Polity: Separation of Powers :


GS2 Syllabus Topic:

  • Separation of Powers (between different organs, dispute redressal mechanisms, institutions);

  • Judiciary (structure, organisation functioning)

  1. Judicial Legislation is antithetical to the doctrine of separation of powers as envisaged in the Indian Constitution. In this context justify the filing of large number of public interest petitions praying for issuing guidelines to executive authorities. (2020)
  2. Q.1 Do you think that constitution of India does not accept principle of strict separation of powers rather it is based on the principle of ‘checks and balance’? Explain. (2019)
  3. Resorting to ordinances has always raised concern on violation of the spirit of separation of powers doctrine. While noting the rationales justifying the power to promulgate ordinances, analyze whether the decisions of the Supreme Court on the issue have further facilitated resorting to this power. Should the power to promulgate ordinances be repealed.? (2015)
  4. Discuss the essential conditions for exercise of the legislative powers by the Governor. Discuss the legality of re-promulgation of ordinances by the Governor without placing them before the Legislature. (Answer in 250 words) (2021)
  5. Starting from inventing the ‘basic structure’ doctrine, the judiciary has played a highly proactive role in ensuring that India develops into a thriving democracy. In light of the statement, evaluate the role played by judicial activism in achieving the ideals of democracy. (2014)
  6. What was held in the Coelho case? In this context, can you say that judicial review is of key importance amongst the basic features of the Constitution? (2016)
  7. Q.2 From the resolution of contentious issues regarding distribution of legislative powers by the courts, ‘Principle of Federal Supremacy’ and ‘Harmonious Construction’ have emerged. Explain. (2019)
  8. The judicial systems in India and UK seem to be converging as well as diverging in the recent times. Highlight the key points of convergence and divergence between the two nations in terms of their judicial practices. (2020)
  9. Critically examine the Supreme Court’s judgment on ‘National Judicial Appointments Commission Act, 2014’ with reference to appointment of judges of higher judiciary in India. (2017)
  10. The Supreme Court of India keeps a check on arbitrary power of the Parliament in amending the Constitution. Discuss critically. (2013)


Polity: Federalism & Local governance: 

GS2 Syllabus Topic:

  1. Functions & responsibilities of the Union and the States; issues and challenges of federal structure;

  2. Devolution of powers and finances to local levels; challenges therein.


While the national political parties in India favour centralisation, the regional parties are in favour of State autonomy.” Comment. (Answer in 250 words) (2021) (KIND OF FEDERALISM )

  1. How far do you think cooperation, competition and confrontation have shaped the nature of federation in India? Cite some recent examples to validate your answer. 2019
  2. Discuss the essentials of the 69th Constitutional Amendment Act and anomalies(something that is different from what is normal ), if any that have led to recent reported conflicts between the elected representatives and the institution of the Lieutenant Governor in the administration of Delhi. Do you think that this will give rise to a new trend in the functioning of the Indian federal politics? (2016)
  3. Q.4 Whether the Supreme Court Judgment (July 2018) can settle the political tussle between the Lt. Governor and elected government of Delhi? Examine. (2018)
  4. To what extent is Article 370 of the Indian Constitution, bearing marginal note “Temporary provision with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir”, temporary? Discuss the future prospects of this provision in the context of Indian polity. (2016)
  5. Did the Government of India Act, 1935 lay down a federal constitution? Discuss. (2016)
  6. The concept of cooperative federalism has been increasingly emphasized in recent years. Highlight the drawbacks in the existing structure and the extent to which cooperative federalism would answer the shortcomings. (2015)
  7. Though the federal principle is dominant in our Constitution and that principle is one of its basic features, but it is equally true that federalism under the Indian Constitution leans in favour of a strong Centre, a feature that militates(discourage) against the concept of strong federalism. Discuss. (2014)
  8. Constitutional mechanisms to resolve the inter-state water disputes have failed to address and solve the problems. Is the failure due to structural or process inadequacy or both? Discuss. (2013)
  9. Recent directives from Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas are perceived by the `Nagas’ as a threat to override the exceptional status enjoyed by the State. Discuss in light of Article 371A of the Indian Constitution. (2013)
  10. 17. Do you agree with view that increasing dependence on donor agencies for development reduces the importance of community participation in the development process? Justify your answer. (Answer in 250 words)(2021)
  11. Khap Panchayats have been in the news for functioning as extra-constitutional authorities, often delivering pronouncements amounting to human rights violations. Discuss critically the actions taken by the legislative, executive and the judiciary to set the things right in this regard. (2015)
  12. The strength sustenance of local institutions in India has shifted from their formative phase of ‘Functions, Functionaries and Funs’ to the contemporary stage of ‘Functionality’. Highlight the critical challenges faced by local institutions in terms of their functionality in recent times. (2020)
  13. To what extent, in your opinion, has the decentralisation of power in India changed the governance landscape at the grassroots? (Answer in 150 words) (2021)
  14. “The reservation of seats for women in the institutions of local self- government has had a limited impact on the patriarchal character of the Indian Political Process.” Comment (2019)
  15. Assess the importance of Panchayat system in India as a part of local government. Apart from government grants, what sources the Panchayats can look out for financing developmental projects. (2018)
  16. “The local self-government system in India has not proved to be effective instrument of governance”. Critically examine the statement and give your views to improve the situation. (2017)
  17. In absence of a well-educated and organized local level government system, `Panchayats’ and ‘Samitis’ have remained mainly political institutions and not effective instruments of governance. Critically discuss. (2015)
  18. Many State Governments further bifurcate geographical administrative areas like Districts and Talukas for better governance. In light of the above, can it also be justified that more number of smaller States would bring in effective governance at State level? Discuss. (2013)

Polity: Bodies: 

GS2 Syllabus Topic: Appointment to various Constitutional posts; Constitutional Bodies (powers, functions and responsibilities); Statutory, Regulatory and Quasi-judicial bodies:

Constitutional Bodies (powers, functions and responsibilities)

  1. How have the recommendations of the 14th Finance Commission of India enabled the States to improve their fiscal position? (2021)
  2. How is the Finance Commission of India constituted? What do you about the terms of reference of the recently constituted Finance Commission? Discuss. (2018).
  3. Discuss the recommendations of the 13th Finance Commission which have been a departure from the previous commissions for strengthening the local government finances. (2013)
  4. “The Attorney-General is the chief legal adviser and lawyer of the Government of India.” Discuss. (2019)
  5. “The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) has a very vital role to play.” Explain how this is reflected in the method and terms of his appointment as well as the range of powers he can exercise. (2018)
  6. Exercise of CAG’s powers in relation to the accounts of the Union and the States is derived from Article 149 of the Indian Constitution. Discuss whether audit of the Government’s Policy implementation could amount to overstepping its own (CAG) jurisdiction. (2016)
  7. Whether National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSCJ) can enforce the implementation of constitutional reservation for the Scheduled Castes in the religious minority institutions? Examine. (2018)
  8. Discuss the role of the National Commission for Backward Classes in the wake of its transformation from a statutory body to a constitutional body. (Answer in 150 words)(2021)

Statutory bodies:

  1. “Recent amendments to the Right to information Act will have profound impact on the autonomy and independence of the Information Commission”. Discuss (2020)
  2. Which steps are required for constitutionalization of a commission? Do you think imparting constitutionality to the National Commission for Women would ensure greater gender justice and empowerment in India? Give reasons. (2020)
  3. Is the National Commission for Women able to strategize and tackle the problems that women face at both public and private spheres? Give reasons in support of your answer. (2017)
  4. National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) in India can be most effective when its tasks are adequately supported by other mechanisms that ensure the accountability of a government. In light of the above observation assess the role of NHRC as an effective complement to the judiciary and other institutions in promoting and protecting human rights standards. (2014)
  5. Though the Human Rights Commissions have contributed immensely to the protection of human rights in India, yet they have failed to assert themselves against the mighty and powerful. Analysing their structural and practical limitations, suggest remedial measures.(2021)

Regulatory bodies:

  1. “For achieving the desired objectives, it is necessary to ensure that the regulatory institutions remain independent and autonomous.” Discuss in the light of the experiences in recent past. (2015)
  2. The setting up of a Rail Tariff Authority to regulate fares will subject the cash strapped Indian Railways to demand subsidy for obligation to operate non-profitable routes and services. Taking into account the experience in the power sector, discuss if the proposed reform is expected to benefit the consumers, the Indian Railways or the private container operators. (2014)
  3. The product diversification of financial institutions and insurance companies, resulting in overlapping of products and services strengthens the case for the merger of the two regulatory agencies, namely SEBI and IRDA. Justify. (2013)


  1. What is a quasi-judicial body? Explain with the help of concrete examples. (2016)
  2. What are the major changes brought in the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 through the recent Ordinance promulgated by the President? How far will it improve India’s dispute resolution mechanism? Discuss. (2015)
  3. “The Central Administration Tribunal which was established for redressal of grievances and complaints by or against central government employees nowadays is exercising its powers as an independent judicial authority.” Explain. (2019)
  4. How far do you agree with the view that tribunals curtail the jurisdiction of ordinary courts? In view of the above, discuss the constitutional validity and competency of the tribunals in India. (2018)


[Block-B] Policies for sectors, services

    1. Welfare: Policies & Schemes
    2. Welfare: Social Services: Health, Edu, HRD
    3. Welfare: Sectoral Policies (Economy related)


Section 2: Welfare Policies & services

Welfare Schemes & Policies for sectors, services:

GS2 Syllabus Topic:Welfare Schemes (centre, states; performance, mechanisms, laws, institutions and bodies constituted for protection of vulnerable sections);

Poverty and hunger Issues:

  1. “The incidence and intensity of poverty are more important in determining poverty based on income alone”. In this context analyze the latest United Nations Multidimensional Poverty Index Report.2020
  2. There is a growing divergence in the relationship between poverty and hunger in India. The shrinking of social expenditure by the government is forcing the poor to spend more on Non- Food essential items squeezing their food – budget. Elucidate. (2019)
  3. How far do you agree with the view that the focus on lack or availability of food as the main cause of hunger takes the attention away from ineffective human development policies in India? (2018)
  4. Hunger and Poverty are the biggest challenges for good governance in India still today. Evaluate how far successive governments have progressed in dealing with these humongous problems. Suggest measures for improvement. (2017)
  5. ‘Poverty Alleviation Programmes in India remain mere show pieces until and unless they are backed by political will’. Discuss with reference to the performance of the major poverty alleviation programmes in India. (2017)
  6. 16. Besides the welfare schemes, India needs deft management of inflation and unemployment to serve the poor and the underprivileged sections of the society. Discuss. (Answer in 250 words) (2021)
  7. Though there have been several different estimates of poverty in India, all indicate reduction in poverty levels over time. Do you agree? Critically examine with reference to urban and rural poverty indicators. (2015)

Vulnerable section of society :

  1. Multiplicity of various commissions for the vulnerable sections or the society leads to problems or overlapping jurisdiction and duplication of functions. Is it better to merge all commissions into an umbrella Human Rights Commission? Argue your case. 2018
  2. Performance of welfare schemes that are implemented for vulnerable sections is not so effective due to absence of their awareness and active involvement at all stages of policy process – Discuss. (2019)
  3. Does the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016 ensure effective mechanism for empowerment and inclusion of the intended beneficiaries in the society? Discuss (2017)
  4. 7. The Right of Person with Disabilities Act, 2016 remains only a legal document without intense sensitisation of government functionaries and citizens regarding disability. Comment. (Answer in 150 words) (2021)
  5. Do government’s schemes for up-lifting vulnerable and backward communities by protecting required social resources for them, lead to their exclusion in establishing businesses in urban economics? (2014)
  6. The Central Government frequently complains on the poor performance of the State Governments in eradicating suffering of the vulnerable sections of the society. Restructuring of Centrally sponsored schemes across the sectors for ameliorating the cause of vulnerable sections of population aims at providing flexibility to the States in better implementation. Critically evaluate. (2013)

Reformative schemes :

  1. Indian constitution exhibits centralising tendencies to maintain unity and integrity of the nation. Elucidate in the perspective of the Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897; The Disaster Management Act, 2005 and recently passed Farm Acts. (2020)
  2. Two parallel run schemes of the Government viz. the Adhaar Card and NPR, one as voluntary and the other as compulsory, have led to debates at national levels and also litigations. On merits, discuss whether or not both schemes need run concurrently. Analyze the potential of the schemes to achieve developmental benefits and equitable growth. (2014)
  3. Electronic cash transfer system for the welfare schemes is an ambitious project to minimize corruption, eliminate wastage and facilitate reforms. Comment (2013)
  4. 8. Reforming the government delivery system through the Direct Benefit Transfer Scheme is a progressive step, but it has its limitations too. Comment. (Answer in 150 words) (2021)


Implementation mechanisms/laws:

  1. ‘In the context of neo-liberal paradigm of development planning, multi-level planning is expected to make operations cost effective and remove many implementation blockages.’-Discuss. (2019)
  2. The need for cooperation among various service sectors has been an inherent component of development discourse. Partnership bridges bring the gap among the sectors. It also sets in motion a culture of ‘Collaboration’ and ‘team spirit’. In the light of statements above examine India’s Development process. (2019)
  3. Whether National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSCJ) can enforce the implementation of constitutional reservation for the Scheduled Castes in the religious minority institutions? Examine. (2018)
  4. The basis of providing urban amenities in rural areas (PURA) is rooted in establishing connectivity. Comment (2013)

Welfare: Social Services: Health, Edu, HRD:

GS2 Syllabus Topic: Social Sector & Social Services (health, education, human resources – issues in development, management);

Health :

  1. “Besides being a moral imperative of a Welfare State, primary health structure is a necessary precondition for sustainable development.” 2021
  2. In order to enhance the prospects of social development, sound and adequate health care policies are needed particularly in the fields of geriatric and maternal health care. Discuss. 2020
  3. Appropriate local community-level healthcare intervention is a prerequisite to achieve ‘Health for All ‘in India. Explain. (2018)
  4. ‘To ensure effective implementation of policies addressing water, sanitation and hygiene needs, the identification of beneficiary segments is to be synchronized with the anticipated outcomes’ Examine the statement in the context of the WASH scheme. (2017)
  5. Public health system has limitations in providing universal health coverage. Do you think that the private sector could help in bridging the gap? What other viable alternatives would you suggest? (2015)

Education :

  1. Earn while you learn’ scheme needs to be strengthened to make vocational education and skill training meaningful (2021)
  2. National Education Policy 2020 is in conformity with the Sustainable Development Goal-4 (2030). It intends to restructure and reorient education system in India. Critically examine the statement. (2020)
  3. “Demographic Dividend in India will remain only theoretical unless our manpower becomes more educated, aware, skilled and creative.” What measures have been taken by the government to enhance the capacity of our population to be more productive and employable? (2016)
  4. Professor Amartya Sen has advocated important reforms in the realms of primary education and primary health care. What are your suggestions to improve their status and performance? (2016)
  5. The quality of higher education in India requires major improvements to make it internationally competitive. Do you think that the entry of foreign educational institutions would help improve the quality of higher and technical education in the country? Discuss. (2015)
  6. Should the premier institutes like IITs/IIMs be allowed to retain premier status, allowed more academic independence in designing courses and also decide mode/criteria of selection of students. Discuss in light of the growing challenges. (2014)
  7. The concept of Mid Day Meal (MDM) scheme is almost a century old in India with early beginnings in Madras Presidency in pre-independent India. The scheme has again been given impetus in most states in the last two decades. Critically examine its twin objectives, latest mandates and success. (2013)

Development indicator:

  1. Despite Consistent experience of High growth, India still goes with the lowest indicators of human development. Examine the issues that make balanced and inclusive development elusive. (2019)
  2. Identify the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that are related to health. Discuss the success of the actions taken by the Government for achieving the same. (2013)

Child care scheme:

  1. Examine the main provisions of the National Child Policy and throw light on the status of its implementation. (2016)
  2. The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 remains inadequate in promoting incentive-based system for children’s education without generating awareness about the importance of schooling. Analyse. (Answer in 250 words)(2021)



An athlete participates in Olympics for personal triumph and nation’s glory; victors are showered with cash incentives by various agencies, on their return. Discuss the merit of state sponsored talent hunt and its cultivation as against the rationale of a reward mechanism as encouragement. (2014)

Welfare: Sectoral Policies (Economy related):


  1. The Gati-Shakti Yojana needs meticulous coordination between the government and the private sector to achieve the goal of connectivity. Discuss.(Answer in 150 words) (2021)
  2. “Policy contradictions among various competing sectors and stakeholders have resulted in inadequate ‘protection and prevention of degradation’ to environment.” ” Comment with relevant illustration. (2018)
  3. Explain the salient features of the constitution (One Hundred and First Amendment) Act, 2016. Do you think it is efficacious enough ‘to remove cascading effect of taxes and provide for common national market for goods and services’? (2017)
  4. Has the Indian governmental system responded adequately to the demands of Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization started in 1991? What can the government do to be responsive to this important change? (2016)
  5. Though 100 percent FDI is already allowed in non-news media like a trade publication and general entertainment channel, the Government is mulling over the proposal for increased FDI in news media for quite some time. What difference would an increase in FDI make? Critically evaluate the pros and cons. (2014)



[Block-C] Governance & groups

    1. Governance: Accountability & E-Gov
    2. Groups: Civil Services, NGO, SHG, Pressure Groups


Section 3: Governance & groups 

Governance: Accountability & Transparency :

Governance: Accountability & E-Gov:


  1. GS2 Syllabus Topic: Important aspects of governance; Transparency and accountability (institutional and other measures); Citizens Charter;

  2. GS2 Syllabus Topic: E-Governance (applications, models, successes, limitations, potential)


  1. Citizens’ Charter is an ideal instrument of organizational transparency and accountability, but. it has its own limitations. Identify the limitations and suggest measures for greater effectiveness or the Citizens Charter. (2018)
  2. Discuss the role of Public Accounts Committee in establishing accountability of the government to the people. (2017)
  3. “Effectiveness of the government system at various levels and people’s participation in the governance system is inter-dependent.” Discuss their relationship with each other in context of India. (2016)
  4. In the integrity index of Transparency International, India stands very low. Discuss briefly the legal, political, economic, social and cultural factors that have caused the decline of public morality in India. (2016)
  5. In the light of the Satyam Scandal (2009), discuss the changes brought in corporate governance to ensure transparency, accountability. (2015)
  6. “If amendment bill to the Whistleblowers Act, 2011 tabled in the Parliament is passed, there may be no one left to protect.” Critically evaluate. (2015)
  7. Though Citizen’s charters have been formulated by many public service delivery organizations, there is no corresponding improvement in the level of citizens’ satisfaction and quality of services being provided? Analyze. (2013)
  8. ‘A national Lokpal, however strong it may be, cannot resolve the problems of immorality in public affairs’. Discuss. (2013)


  1. “The emergence of Fourth Industrial Revolution (Digital Revolution) has initiated e-Governance as an integral part of government”. Discuss. 
  2. Implementation of information and Communication Technology (ICT) based Projects / Programmes usually suffers in terms of certain vital factors. Identify these factors, and suggest measures for their effective implementation. (2019)
  3. E-Governance is not only about utilization of the power of new technology, but also much about critical importance of the ‘use value’ of information Explain. (2018) 


Groups: Civil Services, NGO, SHG, Pressure Groups:

S2 Syllabus Topic:

  1. Development Processes & Development industry (role of NGOs, SHGs, groups & associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders)

  2. Pressure Groups & Formal, Informal associations (and their role in the polity)

  3. Role of Civil Services in a democracy.


Pressure groups:

  1. What are the methods used by the Farmers organizations to influence the policy- makers in India and how effective are these methods? (2019)
  2. How do pressure groups influence Indian political process? Do you agree with this view that informal pressure groups have emerged as powerful than formal pressure groups in recent years? (2017)
  3. ‘The emergence of Self Help Groups(SHGs) in contemporary times points to the slow but steady withdrawal of the state from developmental activities’. Examine the role of the SHGs in developmental activities and the measures taken by the Government of India to promote the SHGs. (2017)
  4. “In the Indian governance system, the role of non-state actors has been only marginal.” Critically examine this statement. (2016)
  5. The Self-Help Group (SHG) Bank Linkage Programme (SBLP), which is India’s own innovation, has proved to be one of the most effective poverty alleviation and women empowerment programmes. Elucidate.2015
  6. Examine critically the recent changes in the rules governing foreign funding of NGOs under the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA), 1976.2015
  7. How can the role of NGOs be strengthened in India for development works relating to protection of the environment? Discuss throwing light on the major constraints.2015
  8. The penetration of Self Help Groups (SHGs) in rural areas in promoting participation in development programmes is facing socio-cultural hurdles. Examine.2014
  9. The legitimacy and accountability of Self Help Groups (SHGs) and their patrons, the micro-finance outfits, need systematic assessment and scrutiny for the sustained success of the concept. Discuss.2013
  10. Pressure group politics is sometimes seen as the informal face of politics. With regards to the above, assess the structure and functioning of pressure groups in India. (2013)

Civil services:

  1. “Institutional quality is a crucial driver of economic performance”. In this context suggest reforms in Civil Service for strengthening democracy. 2020
  2. Initially Civil Services in India were designed to achieve the goals of neutrality and effectiveness, which seems to be lacking in the present context. Do you agree with the view that drastic reforms are required in Civil Services. Comment (2017)
  3. “Traditional bureaucratic structure and culture have hampered the process of socio-economic development in India.” Comment. (2016)
  4. Has the Cadre based Civil Services Organisation been the cause of slow change in India? Critically examine. (2014)
  1. “Micro-Finance as an anti-poverty vaccine, is aimed at asset creation and income security of the rural poor in India”. Evaluate the role of Self-Help Groups in achieving the twin objectives along with empowering women in rural India.2020


[Block-D] IR Diplomacy

    1. IR/Diplomacy: Neighbors
    2. IR/Diplomacy: Not-Neighbors but affecting interests
    3. IR/Diplomacy: Institutions, Groupings, Agreements

Section 4: International Relation 

Foreign policy:

  1. ‘Indian diaspora has a decisive role to play in the politics and economy of America and European Countries’. Comment with examples. 2020
  2. Indian Diaspora has an important role to play in South-East Asian countries’ economy and society. Appraise the role of Indian Diaspora in South- East Asia in this context (2017)
  3. Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD)’ is the transforming itself into a trade bloc from a military alliance, in present times – Discuss.(2020)
  4. 19. How will I2U2 (India, Israel, UAE and USA) grouping transform India’s position in global politics? (Answer in 250 words)(2021)
  5. What is the significance of Indo-US defence deals over Indo-Russian defence deals? Discuss with reference to stability in the Indo-Pacific region. 
  6. Project `Mausam’ is considered a unique foreign policy initiative of the Indian Government to improve relationship with its neighbors. Does the project have a strategic dimension? Discuss. (2015)
  7. What is meant by Gujral doctrine? Does it have any relevance today? Discuss. (2013)
  8. “The long-sustained image of India as a leader of the oppressed and marginalised Nations has disappeared on account of its new found role in the emerging global order”. Elaborate (2019)
  9. The question of India’s Energy Security constitutes the most important part of India’s economic progress. Analyze India’s energy policy cooperation with West Asian Countries (2017)
  10. 20. ‘Clean energy is the order of the day.’ Describe briefly India’s changing policy towards climate change in various international for a in the context of geopolitics.(2021)

Evaluate the economic and strategic dimensions of India’s Look East Policy in the context of the post-Cold War international scenario.(2016)


  1. China
  1. ‘China is using its economic relations and positive trade surplus as tools to develop potential military power status in Asia’, In the light of this statement, discuss its impact on India as her neighbor. (2017)
  2. With respect to the South China sea, maritime territorial disputes and rising tension affirm the need for safeguarding maritime security to ensure freedom of navigation and over flight throughout the region. In this context, discuss the bilateral issues between India and China. (2014)
  3. What do you understand by ‘The String of Pearls’? How does it impact India? Briefly outline the steps taken by India to counter this. (2013)
  1. Pakistan
  1. “Increasing cross-border terrorist attacks in India and growing interference in the internal affairs of several member-states by Pakistan are not conducive for the future of SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation).” Explain with suitable examples. (2016)
  2. Terrorist activities and mutual distrust have clouded India-Pakistan relations. To what extent the use of soft power like sports and cultural exchanges could help generate goodwill between the two countries? Discuss with suitable examples. (2015)
  1. Afghanistan/ Bangladesh/ Maldives/ Sri Lanka
  1. The proposed withdrawal of International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) from Afghanistan in 2014 is fraught with major security implications for the countries of the region. Examine in light of the fact that India is faced with a plethora of challenges and needs to safeguard its own strategic interests. (2013) 
  2. The protests in Shahbag Square in Dhaka in Bangladesh reveal a fundamental split in society between the nationalists and Islamic forces. What is its significance for India? (2013)
  3. Discuss the political developments in Maldives in the last two years. Should they be of any cause of concern to India? (2013)
  4. In respect of India — Sri Lanka relations, discuss how domestic factors influence foreign policy. (2013)
  5. 9. ‘India is an age-old friend of Sri Lanka.’ Discuss India’s role in the recent crisis in Sri Lanka in the light of the preceding statement. (Answer in 150 words)(2021)


IR/Diplomacy: Not-Neighbors but affecting interests

GS2 Syllabus Topic: Effect of Policies & Politics of Developed and Developing countries on India (India’s interests, diaspora)


  1. “What introduces friction into the ties between India and the United States is that Washington is still unable to find for India a position in its global strategy, which would satisfy India’s National self- esteem and ambitions” Explain with suitable examples. (2019) 
  2. In what ways would the ongoing US-Iran Nuclear Pact Controversy affect the national interest of India? How should India respond to this situation? (2018)
  1. Japan
  1. ‘The time has come for India and Japan to build a strong contemporary relationship, one involving global and strategic partnership that will have a great significance for Asia and the world as a whole.’ Comment (2019)
  2. Economic ties between India and Japan while growing in the recent years are still far below their potential. Elucidate the policy constraints which are inhibiting this growth. (2013)
  1. Isreal/ Africa 
  1. ‘India’s relations with Israel have, of late, acquired a depth and diversity, which cannot be rolled back.” Discuss. (2018)
  2. Increasing interest of India in Africa has its pros and cons. Critically examine. (2015)


IR/Diplomacy: Institutions, Groupings, Agreements:

GS2 Syllabus Topic: Important International institutions, agencies, for a (structure, mandate); Bilateral, Regional, Global groupings & Agreements (involving and/or affecting India):


  1. Critically examine the role of WHO in providing global health security during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020)
  2. Some of the International funding agencies have special terms for economic participation stipulating a substantial component of the aid to be used for sourcing equipment from the leading countries. Discuss on merits of such terms and if, there exists a strong case not to accept such conditions in the Indian context. (2014)
  3. What are the aims and objectives of the McBride Commission of the UNESCO? What is India’s position on these? (2016)
  4. ‘Too little cash, too much politics, leaves UNESCO fighting for life.’ Discuss the statement in the light of US’ withdrawal and its accusation of the cultural body as being ‘anti-Israel bias’ (2019)
  5. What are the main functions of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)? Explain different functional commissions attached to it. (2017)
  6. What are the key areas of reform if the WTO has to survive in the present context of ‘Trade War’, especially keeping in mind the interest of India? (2018)
  7. “The broader aims and objectives of WTO are to manage and promote international trade in the era of globalization. But the Doha round of negotiations seem doomed due to differences between the developed and the developing countries.” Discuss in the Indian perspective. (2016)
  8. The aim of Information Technology Agreements (ITAs) is to lower all taxes and tariffs on information technology products by signatories to zero. What impact should such agreements have on India’s interests? (2014)  (WTO)
  9. WTO is an important international institution where decisions taken affect countries in profound manner. What is the mandate of WTO and how binding are their decisions? Critically analyse India’s stand on the latest round of talks on Food security. (2014)
  10. Discuss the impediments India is facing in its pursuit of a permanent seat in UN Security Council. (2015)
  11. India has recently signed to become founding a New Development Bank (NDB) and also the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) .How will the role of the two Banks be different? Discuss the significance of these two Banks for India. (2014)
  12. The World Bank and the IMF, collectively known as the Bretton Woods Institutions, are the two inter-governmental pillars supporting the structure of the world’s economic and financial order. Superficially, the World Bank and the IMF exhibit many common characteristics, yet their role, functions and mandate are distinctly different. Elucidate. (2013)
  13. A number or outside powers have entrenched themselves in Central Asia, which is a zone to interest to India. Discuss the implications, in this context, of India’s joining the Ashgabat Agreement, 2018. (2018)
  14. 10. Do you think that BIMSTEC is a parallel organisation like the SAARC? What are the similarities and dissimilarities between the two? How are Indian foreign policy objectives realized by forming this new organisation? (Answer in 150 words)(2021)
  15. 2022/2023: 100% G-20 AND INDIA’S ROLE AS PRESIDENT OF IT


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