[Block-A] Polity

    1. Polity: Basics of Constitution
    2. Polity: The Executive
    3. Polity: Legislature & Elections
    4. Polity: Separation of Powers
    5. Polity: Federalism & Local governance
    6. Polity: Bodies
  • [Block-A] : Polity

A1. Basics of Constitution :

A1a. Historical underpinnings & evolution;

A1b. Features,

A1c. Amendments,

A1d. Significant provisions,

A1e. Basic structure;

A1f. Comparison of Indian constitutional scheme with other countries.



A1a. Historical underpinnings & evolution



A1b. Features: Fundamental rights/ DPSP


Right of movement and residence throughout the territory of India are freely available to the Indian citizens, but these rights are not absolute.” Comment. (Answer in 150 words)

Examine the scope of Fundamental Rights in the light of the latest judgement of the Supreme Court on Right to Privacy.
What do you understand by the concept “freedom of speech and expression”? Does it cover hate speech also? Why do the films in India stand on a slightly different plane from other forms of expression? Discuss.
Discuss each adjective attached to the word ‘Republic’ in the preamble. Are they defendable in the present circumstances stances?
Discuss the possible factors that inhibit India from enacting for its citizens a uniform civil code as provided for in the Directive Principles of State Policy.
Khap Panchayats have been in the news for functioning as extra-constitutional authorities, often delivering pronouncements amounting to human rights violations. Discuss critically the actions taken by the legislative, executive and the judiciary to set the things right in this regard.
Does the right to clean environment entail legal regulations on burning crackers during Diwali? Discuss in the light of Article 21 of the Indian Constitution and Judgement(s) of the Apex Court in this regard.
The most significant achievement of modern law in India is the constitutionalization of environment problems by the Supreme Court.” Discuss this statement with the help of relevant case laws. (Answer in 150 words) (2021)
Discuss Section 66A of IT Act, with reference to its alleged violation of Article 19 of the Constitution.

1c. Amendments: M.LAXMIKANT & NEWS



Parliament’s power to (1c)amend the Constitution is a limited power and it cannot be enlarged into absolute power.” In the light of this statement explain whether Parliament under Article 368 of the Constitution can destroy the (1e). Basic Structure of the Constitution by expanding its (1c.) amending power?



1d. Significant provisions,

1e. Basic structure;

1f. Comparison of Indian constitutional scheme with other countries.


(COMPARING Constitution) The judicial systems in India and UK seem to be converging as well as diverging in recent times. Highlight the key points of convergence and divergence between the two nations in terms of their judicial practices.



(COMPARING Constitution) What can France learn from the Indian Constitution’s approach to secularism? (10m 150 words)


(COMPARING Constitution) India and USA are two large democracies. Examine the basic tenants on which the two political systems are based.


  • [Block-A2] : Polity


A2.Polity: The Executive

GS2 Syllabus Topic:

A2.a Executive (structure, organization, functioning);

A2.b Ministries and Departments (of Union and State govts.)


 PREVIOUS YEAR QUESTION sync with syllabus

A2.a Executive (structure, organization, functioning);

Q. Discuss the role of the Vice-President of India as the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. (Answer in 150 words)(2021)


14. Critically examine the procedures through which the Presidents of India and France are elected. (Answer in 250 words)(2021)

Q. 2021 Discuss the essential conditions for exercise of the legislative powers by the Governor. Discuss the legality of re-promulgation of ordinances by the Governor without placing them before the Legislature. (Answer in 250 words)

Q. Under what circumstances can the Financial Emergency be proclaimed by the President of India? What consequences follow when such a declaration remains in force? 2018

Q. Instances of President’s delay in commuting death sentences have come under public debate as denial of justice. Should there be a time limit specified for the President to accept/reject such petitions? Analyze. (2014)

A2.b Ministries and Departments (of Union and State govts.)

  1. The size of the cabinet should be as big as governmental work justifies and as big as the Prime Minister can manage as a team. How far the efficacy of a government then is inversely related to the size of the cabinet? Discuss. (2014)


  • [Block-A3] : Polity

GS2 Syllabus Topic:

  • Union and State Legislatures (structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges; issues therein);

  • Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.


A3.Polity: Legislature & Elections

GS2 Syllabus Topic:

  • A3a. Union and State Legislatures (structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges; issues therein) 

  1. “Once a speaker, Always a speaker’! Do you think the practice should be adopted to impart objectivity to the office of the Speaker of Lok Sabha? What could be its implications for the robust functioning of parliamentary business in India.  (2020)
  2. Rajya Sabha has been transformed from a ‘useless stepney tyre’ to the most useful supporting organ in past few decades. Highlight the factors as well as the areas in which this transformation could be visible. (2020)

Q. 2019

Individual Parliamentarian’s role as the national lawmaker is on a decline, which in turn, has adversely impacted the quality of debates and their outcome. Discuss.(15m 250 words)


The role of individual MPs (Members of Parliament) has diminished over the years and as a result healthy constructive debates on policy issues are not usually witnessed. How far can this be attributed to the anti-defection law, which was legislated but with a different intention?

Q. 2018

Why do you think the committees are considered to be useful for parliamentary work?  Discuss, in this context, the role or the Estimates Committee.


Why do you think the committees are considered to be useful for parliamentary work?  Discuss, in this context, the role or the Estimates Committee.

Q. 2017

The Indian Constitution has provisions for holding joint session of the two houses of the Parliament. Enumerate the occasions when this would normally happen and also the occasions when it cannot, with reasons thereof.

Q. 2017

The Indian party system is passing through a phase of transition which looks to be full of contradictions and paradoxes.” Discuss.

Q. 2014

The ‘Powers, Privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members’ as envisaged in Article 105 of the Constitution leave room for a large number of un-codified and un-enumerated privileges to continue. Assess the reasons for the absence of legal codification of the ‘parliamentary privileges’. How can this problem be addressed?



  • A3b. Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.


Q. Discuss the procedures to decide the disputes arising out of the election of a Member of the Parliament or State Legislature under The Representation of the People Act, 1951. What are the grounds on which the election of any returned candidate may be declared void? What remedy is available to the aggrieved party against the decision? Refer to the case laws. (Answer in 250 words)


On what grounds a people’s representative can be disqualified under the Representation of People Act, 1951? Also mention the remedies available to such person against his disqualification.

Q 2018

In the light of recent controversy regarding the use of Electronic Voting Machines (EVM), what are the challenges before the Election Commission of India to ensure the trustworthiness of elections in India?

Q 2017

‘Simultaneous election to the Lok Sabha and the State Assemblies will limit the amount of time and money spent in electioneering but it will reduce the government’s accountability to the people’ Discuss.

Q 2017

To enhance the quality of democracy in India the Election Commission of India has proposed electoral reforms in 2016. What are the suggested reforms and how far are they significant to make democracy successful?


15. Discuss the role of the Election Commission of India in the light of the evolution of the Model Code of Conduct. (Answer in 250 words)


Polity: Separation of Powers :


GS2 Syllabus Topic:

  • Separation of Powers (between different organs, dispute redressal mechanisms, institutions);

  • Judiciary (structure, organisation functioning)

  1. Judicial Legislation is antithetical to the doctrine of separation of powers as envisaged in the Indian Constitution. In this context justify the filing of large number of public interest petitions praying for issuing guidelines to executive authorities. (2020)
  2. Q.1 Do you think that constitution of India does not accept principle of strict separation of powers rather it is based on the principle of ‘checks and balance’? Explain. (2019)
  3. Resorting to ordinances has always raised concern on violation of the spirit of separation of powers doctrine. While noting the rationales justifying the power to promulgate ordinances, analyze whether the decisions of the Supreme Court on the issue have further facilitated resorting to this power. Should the power to promulgate ordinances be repealed.? (2015)
  4. Discuss the essential conditions for exercise of the legislative powers by the Governor. Discuss the legality of re-promulgation of ordinances by the Governor without placing them before the Legislature. (Answer in 250 words) (2021)
  5. Starting from inventing the ‘basic structure’ doctrine, the judiciary has played a highly proactive role in ensuring that India develops into a thriving democracy. In light of the statement, evaluate the role played by judicial activism in achieving the ideals of democracy. (2014)
  6. What was held in the Coelho case? In this context, can you say that judicial review is of key importance amongst the basic features of the Constitution? (2016)
  7. Q.2 From the resolution of contentious issues regarding distribution of legislative powers by the courts, ‘Principle of Federal Supremacy’ and ‘Harmonious Construction’ have emerged. Explain. (2019)
  8. The judicial systems in India and UK seem to be converging as well as diverging in the recent times. Highlight the key points of convergence and divergence between the two nations in terms of their judicial practices. (2020)
  9. Critically examine the Supreme Court’s judgment on ‘National Judicial Appointments Commission Act, 2014’ with reference to appointment of judges of higher judiciary in India. (2017)
  10. The Supreme Court of India keeps a check on arbitrary power of the Parliament in amending the Constitution. Discuss critically. (2013)


Polity: Federalism & Local governance: 

GS2 Syllabus Topic:

  1. Functions & responsibilities of the Union and the States; issues and challenges of federal structure;

  2. Devolution of powers and finances to local levels; challenges therein.


While the national political parties in India favour centralisation, the regional parties are in favour of State autonomy.” Comment. (Answer in 250 words) (2021) (KIND OF FEDERALISM )

  1. How far do you think cooperation, competition and confrontation have shaped the nature of federation in India? Cite some recent examples to validate your answer. 2019
  2. Discuss the essentials of the 69th Constitutional Amendment Act and anomalies(something that is different from what is normal ), if any that have led to recent reported conflicts between the elected representatives and the institution of the Lieutenant Governor in the administration of Delhi. Do you think that this will give rise to a new trend in the functioning of the Indian federal politics? (2016)
  3. Q.4 Whether the Supreme Court Judgment (July 2018) can settle the political tussle between the Lt. Governor and elected government of Delhi? Examine. (2018)
  4. To what extent is Article 370 of the Indian Constitution, bearing marginal note “Temporary provision with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir”, temporary? Discuss the future prospects of this provision in the context of Indian polity. (2016)
  5. Did the Government of India Act, 1935 lay down a federal constitution? Discuss. (2016)
  6. The concept of cooperative federalism has been increasingly emphasized in recent years. Highlight the drawbacks in the existing structure and the extent to which cooperative federalism would answer the shortcomings. (2015)
  7. Though the federal principle is dominant in our Constitution and that principle is one of its basic features, but it is equally true that federalism under the Indian Constitution leans in favour of a strong Centre, a feature that militates(discourage) against the concept of strong federalism. Discuss. (2014)
  8. Constitutional mechanisms to resolve the inter-state water disputes have failed to address and solve the problems. Is the failure due to structural or process inadequacy or both? Discuss. (2013)
  9. Recent directives from Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas are perceived by the `Nagas’ as a threat to override the exceptional status enjoyed by the State. Discuss in light of Article 371A of the Indian Constitution. (2013)
  10. 17. Do you agree with view that increasing dependence on donor agencies for development reduces the importance of community participation in the development process? Justify your answer. (Answer in 250 words)(2021)
  11. Khap Panchayats have been in the news for functioning as extra-constitutional authorities, often delivering pronouncements amounting to human rights violations. Discuss critically the actions taken by the legislative, executive and the judiciary to set the things right in this regard. (2015)
  12. The strength sustenance of local institutions in India has shifted from their formative phase of ‘Functions, Functionaries and Funs’ to the contemporary stage of ‘Functionality’. Highlight the critical challenges faced by local institutions in terms of their functionality in recent times. (2020)
  13. To what extent, in your opinion, has the decentralisation of power in India changed the governance landscape at the grassroots? (Answer in 150 words) (2021)
  14. “The reservation of seats for women in the institutions of local self- government has had a limited impact on the patriarchal character of the Indian Political Process.” Comment (2019)
  15. Assess the importance of Panchayat system in India as a part of local government. Apart from government grants, what sources the Panchayats can look out for financing developmental projects. (2018)
  16. “The local self-government system in India has not proved to be effective instrument of governance”. Critically examine the statement and give your views to improve the situation. (2017)
  17. In absence of a well-educated and organized local level government system, `Panchayats’ and ‘Samitis’ have remained mainly political institutions and not effective instruments of governance. Critically discuss. (2015)
  18. Many State Governments further bifurcate geographical administrative areas like Districts and Talukas for better governance. In light of the above, can it also be justified that more number of smaller States would bring in effective governance at State level? Discuss. (2013)

Polity: Bodies: 

GS2 Syllabus Topic: Appointment to various Constitutional posts; Constitutional Bodies (powers, functions and responsibilities); Statutory, Regulatory and Quasi-judicial bodies:

Constitutional Bodies (powers, functions and responsibilities)

  1. How have the recommendations of the 14th Finance Commission of India enabled the States to improve their fiscal position? (2021)
  2. How is the Finance Commission of India constituted? What do you about the terms of reference of the recently constituted Finance Commission? Discuss. (2018).
  3. Discuss the recommendations of the 13th Finance Commission which have been a departure from the previous commissions for strengthening the local government finances. (2013)
  4. “The Attorney-General is the chief legal adviser and lawyer of the Government of India.” Discuss. (2019)
  5. “The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) has a very vital role to play.” Explain how this is reflected in the method and terms of his appointment as well as the range of powers he can exercise. (2018)
  6. Exercise of CAG’s powers in relation to the accounts of the Union and the States is derived from Article 149 of the Indian Constitution. Discuss whether audit of the Government’s Policy implementation could amount to overstepping its own (CAG) jurisdiction. (2016)
  7. Whether National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSCJ) can enforce the implementation of constitutional reservation for the Scheduled Castes in the religious minority institutions? Examine. (2018)
  8. Discuss the role of the National Commission for Backward Classes in the wake of its transformation from a statutory body to a constitutional body. (Answer in 150 words)(2021)

Statutory bodies:

  1. “Recent amendments to the Right to information Act will have profound impact on the autonomy and independence of the Information Commission”. Discuss (2020)
  2. Which steps are required for constitutionalization of a commission? Do you think imparting constitutionality to the National Commission for Women would ensure greater gender justice and empowerment in India? Give reasons. (2020)
  3. Is the National Commission for Women able to strategize and tackle the problems that women face at both public and private spheres? Give reasons in support of your answer. (2017)
  4. National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) in India can be most effective when its tasks are adequately supported by other mechanisms that ensure the accountability of a government. In light of the above observation assess the role of NHRC as an effective complement to the judiciary and other institutions in promoting and protecting human rights standards. (2014)
  5. Though the Human Rights Commissions have contributed immensely to the protection of human rights in India, yet they have failed to assert themselves against the mighty and powerful. Analysing their structural and practical limitations, suggest remedial measures.(2021)

Regulatory bodies:

  1. “For achieving the desired objectives, it is necessary to ensure that the regulatory institutions remain independent and autonomous.” Discuss in the light of the experiences in recent past. (2015)
  2. The setting up of a Rail Tariff Authority to regulate fares will subject the cash strapped Indian Railways to demand subsidy for obligation to operate non-profitable routes and services. Taking into account the experience in the power sector, discuss if the proposed reform is expected to benefit the consumers, the Indian Railways or the private container operators. (2014)
  3. The product diversification of financial institutions and insurance companies, resulting in overlapping of products and services strengthens the case for the merger of the two regulatory agencies, namely SEBI and IRDA. Justify. (2013)


  1. What is a quasi-judicial body? Explain with the help of concrete examples. (2016)
  2. What are the major changes brought in the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 through the recent Ordinance promulgated by the President? How far will it improve India’s dispute resolution mechanism? Discuss. (2015)
  3. “The Central Administration Tribunal which was established for redressal of grievances and complaints by or against central government employees nowadays is exercising its powers as an independent judicial authority.” Explain. (2019)
  4. How far do you agree with the view that tribunals curtail the jurisdiction of ordinary courts? In view of the above, discuss the constitutional validity and competency of the tribunals in India. (2018).



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