AGRICULTURE PRELIM 2020-2011 YEARWISE PYQ

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2011

In India, which of the following have the highest share in the disbursement of credit to agriculture and allied activities?

(a) Commercial Banks

(b) Cooperative Banks

(c) Regional Rural Banks

(d) Microfinance Institutions

a

 

 

Among the following States, which one has the most suitable climatic conditions for the cultivation of a large variety of orchids with minimum cost of production, and can develop an export oriented industry in this field?

(a) Andhra Pradesh

(b) Arunachal Pradesh

(c) Madhya Pradesh

(d) Uttar Pradesh

b

 

 

With reference to micro-irrigation, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. Fertilizer/nutrient loss can be reduced.

2. It is the only means of irrigation in dry land farming.

3. In some areas of farming, receding of ground water table can be checked.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

c

 

 

When the bark of a tree is removed in a circular fashion all around near its base, it gradually dries up and dies because

(a) Water form soil cannot rise to aerial parts

(b) Roots are starved of energy

(c) Tree is infected by soil microbes

(d) Roots do not receive oxygen for respiration

b

2012

Consider the following agricultural practices:

1. Contour bunding

2. Relay cropping

3. Zero tillage  In the context of global climate change,

Which of the above helps/help in carbon sequestration/storage in the soil?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 1, 2 and 3

(d) None of them

b

 

 

Consider the following:

1. Assessment of land revenue on the basis of nature of the soil and the quality of crops.

2. Use of mobile cannons in warfare.

3. Cultivation of tobacco and red chillies.

Which of the above was/were introduced into India by the English?

(a) 1 only

(b) 1 and 2

(c)2 and 3

(d) None

d

 

 

Consider the following crops of India:

1. Groundnut

2. Sesamum

3. Pearl millet

Which of the above is/are predominantly rainfed crop/crops?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

d

2013

Which of the following is the chief characteristic of ‘mixed farming’?

(a) Cultivation of both cash crops and food crops.

(b) Cultivation of two or more crops in the same field.

(c) Rearing of animals and cultivation of crops together.

(d) None of the above

c

 

 

Many transplanted seedlings do not grow because

(a) the new soil does not contain favourable minerals

(b) most of the root hairs grip the new soil too hard

(c) most of the root hairs are lost during transplantation

(d) leaves get damaged during transplantation

c

Newly transplanted trees or shrubs experience some degree of transplant shock. This is simply the plant reacting to having been moved. It is generally caused by damage to the roots of the plant during the transplant. While the thickest roots are nearest to the root ball, the most important roots, those that actually “do the work”, are located the farthest away from the plant. These tiny roots are covered by even tinier hairs which absorb most of the water that is eventually carried to the top-growth of the plant.During a transplant, these fine roots are usually destroyed either by being cut to keep the root ball size down, by drying out (some accounts say it only takes 3-4 minutes of exposure to air for these to die), or simply by being jarred and jostled around in the move. As a result of the loss of these feeder roots, the plant is not able to draw the amount of moisture it requires to thrive and grow. The resulting imbalance between the moisture demands of the top-growth and the reduced ability of the roots to meet those demands manifests as transplant shock.

2014

In the context of food and nutritional security of India, enhancing the “Seed Replacement Rates” of various crops helps in achieving the food production targets of the future. But what is/are the constraint/constraints in its wider/greater implementation?

1. There is no National Seeds Policy in place.

2. There is no participation of private sector seed companies in the supply of quality seeds of vegetables and planting materials of horticultural crops.

3. There is a demand-supply gap regarding quality seeds in case of low value and high volume crops.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 2 and 3  only

(d) None of the above

b

 

 

What are the benefits of implementing the “Integrated Watershed Development Programme”?

  1. Prevention of soil runoff
  2. Linking the country”s perennial rivers with seasonal rivers
  3. Rainwater harvesting and recharge of groundwater table
  4. Regeneration of natural vegetation

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2, 3 and 4 only

(c) 1, 3 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4 only

c

 

 

What are the significances of a practical approach to sugarcane production known as “Sustainable Sugarcane Initiative”?

1. Seed cost is very low in this compared to the conventional method of cultivation.

2. Drip irrigation can be practiced very effectively in this.

3. There is no application of chemical/inorganic fertilizers at all in this.

4. The scope for intercropping is more in this compared to the conventional method of cultivation.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 3 only

(b) 1, 2 and 4 only

(c) 2, 3 and 4 only

(d)1, 2, 3 and 4 only

b

 

2015

In India, markets in agricultural products are regulated under the
a) Essential Commodities Act, 1955
b) Agricultural Produce Market Committee Act enacted by States
c) Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marking) Act, 1937
d) Food Products Order, 1956 and Meat and Food Products Order, 1973
Solution: b)

Agricultural Markets in most parts of the Country are established and regulated under the State APMC Acts. The whole geographical area in the State is divided and declared as a market area wherein the markets are managed by the Market Committees constituted by the State Governments. Once a particular area is declared a market area and falls under the jurisdiction of a Market Committee, no person or agency is allowed freely to carry on wholesale marketing activities.
Source: http://agmarknet.nic.in/amrscheme/modelact.htm

 

 

What can be the impact of excessive/inappropriate use of nitrogenous fertilizers in agriculture?
1. Proliferation of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms in soil can occur.
2. Increase in the acidity of soil can take place
3. Leaching of nitrate to the ground-water can occur.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
a) 1 and 3 only
b) 2 only
c) 2 and 3 only
d) 1, 2 and 3
Solution: c)

Statement 1 is absurd. Increasing the amount of nitrogen based fertilizer does not lead to more micro-organisms in the field. If it did, just one dose of fertilizer would make a farm nitrogen rich for years together.
Statement 2: Excessive use of nitrogen fertilizers resulting in soil acidity is a well-known fact.
Statement 3: Nitorgen fertilizers break down into nitrates and travel easily through the soil. Because it is water-soluble and can remain in groundwater for decades, the addition of more nitrogen over the years has an accumulative effect.
Source: http://www.epa.gov/safewater/sourcewater/pubs/fs_swpp_fertilizer.pdf

 

 

 

 Which one of the following best describes the main objective of ‘Seed Village Concept?
(a) Encouraging the farmers to use their own farm seeds and discouraging them to buy the seeds from others
(b) Involving the farmers for training in quality seed production and thereby to make available quality seeds to others at appropriate time and affordable cost
(c) Earmarking some villages exclusively for the production of certified seeds
(d) Identifying the entrepreneurs in village and providing them technology and finance to set up seed companies
Solution: b)

A village, wherein trained group of fanners are involved (generally in a self-help group) in production of seeds of various crops and cater to the needs of themselves, fellow fanners of the village and fanners of neighboring villages in appropriate time and at affordable cost is called “a seed village”.
Source: http://www.agritech.tnau.ac.in/seed_certification/seed_tech_Seed%20Village.html

 

Consider the following statements:
1. The Accelerated Irrigation Benefits Programme was launched during 1996-97 to provide loan assistance to poor farmers.
2. The Command Area Development Programme was launched in 1974-75 for the development of water-use efficiency.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Solution: b)

The government of India launched Accelerated Irrigation Benefits Program (AIBP) in 1996-97. This program was launched to give loan assistance to the states to help them a few major irrigation projects which were in advanced stage of completion.
The Command Area Development Programme was launched as a Centrally-sponsored scheme in 1974-75 with the main objectives of improving utilization of irrigation potential and optimizing agricultural productivity and production from the irrigated areas by integrating all functions related with irrigated agriculture.
Source: http://www.archive.india.gov.in/sectors/water_resources/index.php?id=10
http://www.archive.india.gov.in/sectors/water_resources/index.php?id=8

 

 

2016

  1. Why does the Government of India promote the use of Neem-coated Urea’ in agriculture?

(a) Release of Neem oil in the soil increases nitrogen fixation by the soil microorganisms

(b) Neem coating slows down the rate of dissolution of urea in the soil

(c) Nitrous oxide, which is a greenhouse gas, is not at all released into atmosphere by crop fields

(d) It is a combination of a weedicide and a fertilizer for particular crops

Solution: B

Justification: Down-to-earth explains the role of Neem-coated Urea very well. We are posting from it.

  • “Urea is an important supplier of nitrogen, which is necessary for the development of plants. But only 30-40 per cent of nitrogen present in the urea is utilised by crops. The rest gets degraded in various stages.
  • When ordinary urea is applied, it gets converted to ammonium carbamate. Some of this gets converted to ammonia gas in what is called ammonia volatilisation. About 8-10 per cent nitrogen is lost during volatilisation.
  • The rest of the ammonium carbamate undergoes chemical transfor-mation and nitrates are formed. Some of these are absorbed by the plants.
  • The rest are either leached into the underground water or are denitrified to gaseous nitrogen and nitrous oxide under anaerobic conditions (absence of oxygen).
  • Neem has properties that check nitrogen loss at each stage. It slows down the process of nitrate formation and hence excess nitrate is not available for denitrification.
  • So, clearly B is the most appropriate option. Neem coating also prevents Urea from being diverted to non-agricultural purposes.

http://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/urea-coated-with-neem-1252

 

 

Which of the following is/are the advantage /advantages of practising drip irrigation?

  1. Reduction in weed
  2. Reduction in soil salinity
  3. Reduction in soil erosion

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) None of the above is an advantage of practising drip irrigation

Solution: C

Justification: Statement 1: Weeds usually grow in between the plant rows due to availability of moisture on that strip of land. In drip irrigation, water is applied directly to the roots, and not the entire field (thus excluding the land space between plants where weeds usually grow). So, weed growth is inhibited.

Statement 2: There may be some confusion in this statement. Generally excessive logging and flooded fields suffer from higher salinity. So, replacing conventional irrigation may help in curbing water-logged soil salinity.

  • But, generally speaking, as a rule, we cannot claim that if drip irrigation system is installed on a farm land, it would always reduce soil salinity. Seen in isolation from instances of water logging (or other such cases), drip irrigation and soil salinity do not have much co-relation. The system simply delivers water to the roots of the plant.
  • Also, if we use elimination, as 1 and 3 must be correct, there is no option “1, 2 and 3” which automatically tells us that statement 2 is wrong.

Statement 3: Surface irrigation is a significant contributor to top soil erosion. Drip irrigation reduces soil erosion as water is delivered directly to plant roots at a very slow rate (unlike surface irrigation where water velocity can be fast).

https://www.irrigationdirect.com/articles/drip-irrigation-history-benefits

http://www.agriinfo.in/default.aspx?page=topic&superid=8&topicid=2243

 

 

23) With reference to ‘Initiative for Nutritional Security through Intensive Millets Promotion’, which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. This initiative aims to demonstrate the improved production and post-harvest technologies, and to demonstrate value addition   techniques, in an integrated manner, with cluster approach.
  2. Poor, small, marginal and tribal farmers have larger stake in this scheme.
  3. An important objective of the scheme is to encourage farmers of commercial crops to shift to millet cultivation by offering them free     kits of critical inputs of nutrients and micro-irrigation equipment.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 2 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: C

Justification: It was launched under the Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana in 2011-12 for promotion of millets as Nutri-cereals.

Statement 1: It has been picked verbatim from the source mentioned below.

Statement 2: Certain districts with large crop area under millets but with productivity less than that of the National Average Yield could be taken up for active promotion of production technologies through block demonstrations.

  • However, in case of small millets, which have low productivity in general and are taken by resource poor tribal farmers in remote interior areas, production programme would be organized in all the identified districts irrespective of their productivity levels.
  • So, clearly 2 is correct.

Statement 3: The statement is partially wrong.

We are posting verbatim – “Technology demonstration kits of critical inputs of nutrients and plant protection measures comprising of micro-nutrients (not micro-irrigation equipments), fungicides and bio-fertilizers, DAP, urea, potash and pesticides including weedicides at a total cost of Rs. 3,000/- per ha for sorghum, pearl millet and finger millet and Rs. 2,000/- per ha for small millets would be supplied to all the farmers in the units.

These kits would be supplied free of cost to the beneficiary farmers subject to maximum area of 2 hectare.

So, 3 will actually be wrong, because even though the kits are given free of cost, it does not include micro-irrigation equipments.

 

2017

What is/are the advantage/advantages of implementing the ‘National Agriculture Market’ scheme?

 

  1. It is a pan-India electronic trading portal for agricultural commodities.
  2. It provides the farmers access to nationwide market, with prices commensurate with the quality of their produce.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a)1 only

(b)2 only

(c)Both 1 and 2

(d)Neither 1 nor 2

ANS:C

National Agriculture Market (NAM) is a pan-India electronic trading portal which networks the existing APMC mandis to create a unified national market for agricultural commodities. Hence, statement 1 is correct.

 

NAM promotes uniformity, streamlining of procedures across the integrated markets, removes information asymmetry between buyers and sellers and promotes real time price discovery, based on actual demand and supply, promotes transparency in auction process, and access to a nationwide market for the farmer, with prices commensurate with quality of his produce and online payment and availability of better quality produce and at more reasonable prices to the consumer. Hence, statement 2 is correct.

 

Consider the following statements: The nation-wide ‘Soil Health Card Scheme’ aims at

 

1. expanding the cultivable area under irrigation.
2. enabling the banks to assess the quantum of loans to be granted to farmers on the basis of soil quality.
3. checking the overuse of fertilizers in farmlands.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a)1 and 2 only

(b)3 only

(c)2 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:B

Launched by the central government in February 2015, the scheme is tailor-made to issue ‘Soil card’ to farmers which will carry crop-wise recommendations of nutrients and fertilizers required for the individual farms. This is aimed to help farmers to improve productivity through judicious use of inputs. Thus only statement 3 is correct.

 

Which of the following statements can help in water conservation in agriculture?

 

1. Reduced or zero tillage of the land
2. Applying gypsum before irrigating the field
3. Allowing crop residue to remain in the field.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a)1 and 2 only

(b)3 only

(c)1 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:D

No-till farming (also called zero tillage or direct drilling) is a way of growing crops or pasture from year to year without disturbing the soil through tillage. No-till is an agricultural technique which increases the amount of water that infiltrates into the soil and increases organic matter retention and cycling of nutrients in the soil. Gypsum improves the ability of soil to drain and not become waterlogged thus increasing water-use efficiency of crops.

2018


With reference to organic farming in India, consider the following statements:

 

‘The National Programme for Organic Production’ (NPOP) is operated under the guidelines and directions of the Union Ministry of Rural Development.

 

 

100.

‘The Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority’ (APEDA) functions as the Secretariat for the implementation of NPOP.

Sikkim has become India’s first fully organic State.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

 

(a)1 and 2 only

 

(b)2 and 3 only

 

(c)3 only

 

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:D

 

With reference to agricultural soils, consider the following statements:

 

  1. A high content of organic matter in soil drastically reduces its water holding capacity.
  2. Soil does not play any role in the sulphur cycle.
  3. Irrigation over a period of time can contribute to the salinization of some agricultural lands.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 and 2 only

(b)3 only

(c)1 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:B

The Partnership for Action on Green Economy (PAGE) was launched in 2013 as a response to the call at Rio+20 to support those countries wishing to embark on greener and more inclusive growth trajectories.

PAGE seeks to put sustainability at the heart of economic policies and practices to advance the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and supports nations and regions in reframing economic policies and practices around sustainability to foster economic growth, create income and jobs, reduce poverty and inequality, and strengthen the ecological foundations of their economies.

PAGE brings together five UN agencies – UN Environment, International Labour Organization, UN Development Programme, UN Industrial Development Organization, and UN Institute for Training and Research – whose mandates, expertises and networks combined can offer integrated and holistic support to countries on inclusive green economy, ensuring coherence and avoiding duplication.

 

With reference to the Genetically Modified mustard (GM mustard) developed in India, consider the following statements:

 

  1. GM mustard has the genes of a soil bacterium that give the plant the property of pest-resistance to a wide variety of pests.
  2. GM mustard has the genes that allow the plant cross-pollination and hybridization.
  3. GM mustard has been developed jointly by the IARI and Punjab Agricultural University.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 and 3 only

(b)2 only

(c)2 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:B

  • Statement 1 is not correct and statement 2 is correct: According to the developers, the GM mustard uses a system of genes from soil bacterium that makes the plant better suited to hybridisation than current methods.
  • Statement 3 is not correct: The GM mustard was developed by Delhi University-based Centre for Genetic Manipulation of Crop Plants (CGMCP) under the leadership of Deepak Pental, a former vice-chancellor of the university.

 

With reference to the circumstances in Indian agriculture, the concept of “Conservation Agriculture” assumes significance. Which of the following fall under the Conservation Agriculture?

 

  1. Avoiding the monoculture practices
  2. Adopting minimum tillage
  3. Avoiding the cultivation of plantation crops
  4. Using crop residues to cover soil surface
  5. Adopting spatial and temporal crop sequencing/crop rotations

Select the correct answre using the code given below:

(a)1, 3 and 4

(b)2, 3, 4 and 5

(c)2, 4 and 5

(d)1, 2, 3 and 5

ANS:C

 

As per the NSSO 70th Round “Situation Assessment Survey of Agricultural Households”, consider the following statements:

 

  1. Rajasthan has the highest percentage share of agricultural households among its rural households.
  2. Out of the total agricultural households in the country, a little over 60 percent belong to OBCs.
  3. In Kerala, a little over 60 percent of agricultural households reported to have received maximum income from source other than agricultural activities.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)2 and 3 only

(b)2 only

(c)1 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:C

 


2019


 

With reference to the cultivation of Kharif crops in which in the last five years consider the following statements:

1.      Area under rice cultivation is the highest.

2.      Area under the cultivation of jowar is more than that of oilseeds.

3.      Area of cotton cultivation is more than that of sugarcane.

4.      Area under sugarcane cultivation has steadily decreased.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 and 3 only

(b)2, 3 and 4 only

(c)2 and 4 only

(d)1, 2, 3 and 4

ANS:A

Among the agricultural commodities imported by India, which one of the following accounts for the highest imports in terms of value in the last five years?

(a)Spices

(b)Fresh fruits

(c)Pulses

(d)Vegetable oils

ANS: D

 

Among the following which one is the largest exporter of rice in the world in the last five years?

(a)China

(b)India

(c)Myanmar

(d)Vietnam

ANS:B

PESTICIDES:

In India, the use of carbofuran, methyl parathion, phorate and triazophos is viewed with apprehension. These chemicals are used as

(a)pesticides in agriculture

(b)preservatives in processed foods

(c)fruit-ripening agents

(d)moisturizing agents in cosmetics.

ANS: A

 

2020

 

 

Q51. What are the advantages of fertigation in agriculture?

1.Controlling the alkalinity of irrigation water is possible.
2. Efficient application of Rock Phosphate and all other phosphatic fertilizers is possible.
3. Increased availability of nutrients to plants is possible.
4. Reduction in the leaching of chemical nutrients is possible.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only

(b) 1,2 and 4 only

(c) 1,3 and 4 only

(d) 2, 3 and 4 only

Answer: C

 

Q54. With reference to chemical fertilizers in India, consider the following statements:

  1. At present, the retail price of chemical fertilizers is market-driven and not administered by the Government.
  2. Ammonia, which is an input of urea, is produced from natural gas.
  3. Sulphur, which is a raw material for phosphoric acid fertilizer, is a by-product of all oil refineries.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 2 only

(d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: B

 

Q63. What is/are the advantage/advantages of zero tillage in agriculture ?

1. Sowing of wheat is possible without burning the residue of the previous crop.

2. Without the need for nursery of rice saplings, direct planting of paddy seeds in the wet soil is possible.

3. Carbon sequestration in the soil is possible.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1,2 and 3 only

Answer: D

Tillage is an agriculture land preparation through mechanical agitation which includes digging, stirring and overturning.

S1: Zero tillage is the process where the crop seed will be sown through drillers without prior land preparation and disturbing the soil where previous crop stubbles are present. Zero tillage not only reduce the cost of cultivation it also reduces the soil erosion, crop duration and irrigation requirement and weed effect which is better than tillage. Zero Tillage (ZT) also called No Tillage or Nil Tillage.

S2: Direct Seeded Rice Zero-Tillage DSR is an alternative crop establishment method for rice where seeds are sown directly without raising them in a nursery, and can be done in zero-tillage conditions.

S3: If crops are not burnt and land is prepared through mechanical agitation, carbon sequestration remains possible.

This question is also from agritech.tnau.ac.in and has been covered a few times pretty much in the same form in our test series.

 

 

Q66. With reference to pulse production in India ,consider the following statements:

1. Black gram can be cultivated as both Kharif and rabi crop.

2. Green-gram alone accounts for nearly half of pulse production.

3. In the last three decades, while the production of kharif pulses has increased, the production of rabi pulses has decreased.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 2 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3 only

Answer: A

S1: This is correct, pulses are grown in all three seasons – kharif, rabi and zaid.

Q67. “The crop is subtropical in nature. A hard frost is injurious to it. It requires at least 210 frost -free days and 50 to 100 centimeters of rainfall for its growth. A light well-drained soil capable of retaining moisture is ideally suited for the cultivation of the crop.” Which one of the following is that crop?

(a) Cotton

(b) Jute

(c)Sugarcane

(d) Tea

Answer: A

Q68. With reference to solar water pumps, consider the following statements:

1. Solar power can be used for running surface pumps and not for submersible pumps.
2. Solar power can be used for running centrifugal pumps and not the ones with piston.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: D

They can be used to run them all. The most common pump mechanics in Solar power pumps used are centrifugal pumps, multistage pumps, borehole pumps, and helical pumps.

 

Q69. With reference to the current trends in the cultivation of sugarcane in India, consider the following statements:

1. A substantial saving in seed material is made when ‘bud chip settlings are raised in a nursery and transplanted in the main field.

2. When direct planting of setts is done, the germination percentage is better with single-budded setts as compared to setts with many buds.

3. If bad weather conditions prevail when setts are directly planted, single-budded setts have better survival as compared to large setts.

4. Sugarcane can be cultivated using settlings prepared from tissue culture.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 1 and 4 only

(d) 2,3 and 4 only

Answer: C

Conventional method of sugarcane planting requires 7 to 8 tonnes of seed cane per hectare and this is the main reason for slow rate of seed and varietal replacement. Sugarcane being a long duration crop and heavy biomass producer requires about 1500 to 2500 mm water.

Keeping in mind the likely to be faced situations in future, the ICAR-Sugarcane Breeding Institute (ICAR-SBI) has developed an integrated sugarcane cultivation model called Settling Transplanting Technology (STT). Components of the model are listed below:

  1. High yielding and better quality varieties
  2. Raising and transplanting of settlings derived from single bud setts/ bud chips
  3. Sub-surface drip irrigation and fertigation
  4. Wider row planting
  5. Intercropping
  6. Trash mulching
  7. Multiple ratooning
  8. Mechanization

S1: Transplanting sugarcane single-bud/ bud-chip settlings can save seed cane requirement up to 80 per cent besides providing healthy plants and good field establishment. It is less expensive and labour saving in comparison with conventional sett planting.

Other options are spaced transplanting (STP) and polybag / pro-tray nursery.

S2 and S3: Reverse is true. See here http://www.iisr.nic.in/download/publications/ijst-December-2011.pdf

S4: Yes, tissue culture or vegetative propagation (a subset of TC), can be used to germinate and grow these settlings which can be transplanted in the field later.

 

 

Q69. With reference to the current trends in the cultivation of sugarcane in India, consider the following statements:

1. A substantial saving in seed material is made when ‘bud chip settlings are raised in a nursery and transplanted in the main field.

2. When direct planting of setts is done, the germination percentage is better with single-budded setts as compared to setts with many buds.

3. If bad weather conditions prevail when setts are directly planted, single-budded setts have better survival as compared to large setts.

4. Sugarcane can be cultivated using settlings prepared from tissue culture.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 1 and 4 only

(d) 2,3 and 4 only

Answer: C

Conventional method of sugarcane planting requires 7 to 8 tonnes of seed cane per hectare and this is the main reason for slow rate of seed and varietal replacement. Sugarcane being a long duration crop and heavy biomass producer requires about 1500 to 2500 mm water.

Keeping in mind the likely to be faced situations in future, the ICAR-Sugarcane Breeding Institute (ICAR-SBI) has developed an integrated sugarcane cultivation model called Settling Transplanting Technology (STT). Components of the model are listed below:

  1. High yielding and better quality varieties
  2. Raising and transplanting of settlings derived from single bud setts/ bud chips
  3. Sub-surface drip irrigation and fertigation
  4. Wider row planting
  5. Intercropping
  6. Trash mulching
  7. Multiple ratooning
  8. Mechanization

S1: Transplanting sugarcane single-bud/ bud-chip settlings can save seed cane requirement up to 80 per cent besides providing healthy plants and good field establishment. It is less expensive and labour saving in comparison with conventional sett planting.

Other options are spaced transplanting (STP) and polybag / pro-tray nursery.

S2 and S3: Reverse is true. See here http://www.iisr.nic.in/download/publications/ijst-December-2011.pdf

S4: Yes, tissue culture or vegetative propagation (a subset of TC), can be used to germinate and grow these settlings which can be transplanted in the field later.

 

 

Q70. In the context of India, which of the following is/are considered to be practice(s) of eco-friendly agriculture?

1. Crop diversification

2. Legume intensification

3. Tensiometer use

4. Vertical farming

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a) 1,2 and 3 only

(b) 3 only

(c)4 only

(d) 1,2,3 and 4

Answer: D

 

Q71. In India, which of the following can be considered as public investment in agriculture?

1. Fixing Minimum Support Price for agricultural produce of all crops.

2. Computerization of Primary Agricultural Credit Societies.

3. Social Capital Development.

4. Free Electricity supply to farmers.

5. Waiver of agricultural loans by the banking system.

6. Setting up of cold storage facilities by the government.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1,2 and 5 only

(b) 1,3,4 and 5 only

(c)2,3 and 6 only

(d) 1,2,3,4,5 and 6

Answer: C

S1, S4 are subsidies where S5 is a concession or indirect support. They are not investments.

 

Q96. Steel slag can be the material for which of the following?

  1. Construction of base road
  2. Improvement of agriculture soil
  3. Production of cement

Select the correct answer using the given code below

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: D

Straightforward from NCERT.

As for S2: Slag-based fertilizers applied in Si-deficient paddy soil has shown to improve rice growth, productivity, and brown spot resistance. The application of steel slag in the soil increases the concentration of Si in the rice straw and promotes a higher yield of grains.

 

 

Q100. What is the use of Biochar in farming?

  1. Biochar can be used as a part of the growing medium in the vertical farming
  2. When biochar is a part of the growing medium, it promotes the growth of nitrogen fixing microorganisms.
  3. When biochar is a part of the growing medium, it enables the medium to retain water for a longer time.

Which of the above given statements is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3 only

Answer: D

Biochar is a stable, carbon–rich form of charcoal that is applied to soil.

Some biochars can increase soil fertility, water holding capacity and crop productivity.

Use of biochar in vertical farming (see the article https://www.thehindu.com/business/agri-business/biochar-compost-tea-are-the-new-recipe/article7830057.ece ) can increase output significantly.

Adding biochar to soil increases its carbon content and could help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.

Biochar is shown to have increased abundance of mycorrhizal fungi, assisting nutrient uptake by plants.

 

Q2. Consider the following activities :

  1. Spraying pesticides on a crop field
  2. Inspecting the craters of an active volcano
  3. Collecting breath samples from spouting whales for DNA analysis

At the present level of technology, which of the above activities can be successfully carried out using drones?

(a) 1 and 2

(b) 2 and 3

(c) 1 and 3

(d)1, 2 and 3

Answer: D

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