ANCIENT AND ART ANF CULTURE 2020-2011

0
791

2011

100.

 

The “dharma” and “rita” depict a central idea of ancient Vedic civilization of India. In this context, consider the following statements:

1. Dharma was a conception of obligations and of the discharge of one’s duties to oneself and to others.

2. Rita was the fundamental moral law governing the functioning of the universe and all it contained.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

ANS:

 

 

Regarding the Indus Valley Civilization, consider the following statements:

1. It was predominantly a secular civilization and the religious element, though present, did not dominate the scene.

2. During this period, cotton was used for manufacturing textiles in India.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

 

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

c

 

 

The Jain philosophy holds that the world is created and maintained by.

(a) Universal Law

(b) Universal Truth

(c) Universal Faith

(d) Universal Soul

a

 

 

2012

The religion of early Vedic Aryans was primarily of

(a) Bhakti

(b) Image worship and Yajnas

(c) Worship of nature and Yajnas

(d) Worship of nature and Bhakti

c

 

 

Lord Buddha’s image is sometimes shown with the hand gesture called ‘Bhumisparsha Mudra’. It symbolizes

(a) Buddha’s calling of the Earth to watch over Mara and to prevent Mara from disturbing his meditation.

(b) Buddha’s calling of the Earth to witness his purity and chastity despite the temptations of Mara.

(c) Buddha’s reminder to his followers that they all arise from the Earth and finally dissolve into the Earth, and thus this life is transitory.

(d) Both the statements a and b are correct in this context.

b

 

 

How do you distinguish between Kuchipudi and Bharatnatyam dances?

  1. Dancers occasionally speaking dialogues is found in Kuchipudi dance but not in Bharatnatyam.
  2. Dancing on the brass plate by keeping the feet on its edges is a feature of Bharatnatyam but Kuchipudi dance does not have such a form of movements.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

a

 

 

With reference to Dhrupad, one of the major traditions of India that has been kept alive for centuries, which of the following statements are correct?

  1. Dhrupad originated and developed in the Rajput kingdoms during the Mughal period.
  2. Dhrupad is primarily a devotional and spiritual music.
  3. Dhrupad Alap uses Sanskrit syllables from Mantras.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1, 2 and 3

(d) None of the above is correct

b

 

 

 

The Nagara, the Dravida and the Vesara are the:

(a) three main racial groups of the Indian subcontinent.

(b) thee main linguistic divisions into which the languages of India can be classified.

(c) three main styles of Indian temple architecture.

(d) three main musical Gharanas prevalent in India.

c

 

 

With reference to the history of ancient India, which of the following was/were common to both Buddhism and Jainism?

1. Avoidance of extremities of penance and enjoyment.

2. Indifference to the authority of the Vedas.

3. Denial of efficacy of rituals.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

b

 

 

With reference to the scientific progress of ancient India, which of the statements given below are correct?

1. Different kinds of specialized surgical instruments were in common use by 1st century AD.

2. Transplant of internal organs in the human body had beginning of 3rd century AD.

3. The concept of sine of an angle was known in 5th century AD.

4. The concept of cyclic quadrilaterals was known in 7th century AD.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a)1 and 2 only

(b)3 and 4 only

(c)1, 3 and 4 only

(d)1, 2, 3 and 4

c

2013

In the context of cultural history of India, a pose in dance and dramatics called ‘Tribhanga’ has been a favourite of Indian artists from ancient times till today. Which one of the following statements best describes this pose?

(a) One leg is bent and the body is slightly but oppositely curved at waist and neck.

(b) Facial expressions, hand gestures and make-up are combined to symbolize certain epic or historic characters.

(c) Movements of body, face and hands are used to express oneself or to tell a story.

(d) A little smile, slightly curved waist and certain hand gestures are emphasized to express the feelings of love or eroticism.

a

 

 

 

 

With reference to the history of philosophical thought in India, consider the following statements regarding Sankhya school:

  1. Sankhya does not accept the theory of rebirth or transmigration of soul.
  2. Sankhya holds that it is the self-knowledge that leads to liberation and not any exterior influence or agent.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

b

 

 

Consider the following historical places:

 

  1. Ajanta Caves
  2. Lepakshi Temple
  3. Sanchi Stupa

 

Which of the above places is/are also known for mural paintings?

(a) 1 only

(b) 1 and 2 only

(c) 1, 2 and 3

(d) None

b

 

 

Which of the following statements is/are applicable to Jain doctrine?

1. The surest way of annihilating Karma is to practice penance.

2. Every object, even the smallest particle has a soul.

3. Karma is the bane of the soul and must be ended.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

d

 

 

Which of the following characterizes/characterize the people of Indus Civilization?

1. They possessed great palaces and temples.

2. They worshipped both male and female deities.

3. They employed horse-drawn chariots in warfare.

Select the correct statement/statements using the codes given below:

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 only

(c) 1, 2 and 3

(d) None of the statements given above is correct

b

 

 

Which one of the following describes best the concept of Nirvana in Buddhism?

(a) The extinction of the flame of desire

(b) The complete annihilation of self

(c) A state of bliss and rest

(d) A mental stage beyond all comprehension

a

 

 

Some Buddhist rock-cut caves are called Chaityas, while the others are called Viharas. What is the difference between the two?

(a) Vihara is a place of worship, while Chaitya is the dwelling place of the monks.

(b) Chaitya is a place of worship, while Vihara is the dwelling place of the monks.

(c) Chaitya is the stupa at the far end of the cave, while Vihara is the hall axial to it.

(d) There is no material difference between the two.

b

 

 

The Chinese traveler Yuan Chwang (Hiuen Tsang) who visited India recorded the general conditions and culture of India at that time. In this context, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. The roads and river-routes were completely immune from robbery.

2. As regards punishment for offences, ordeals by fire, water and poison were the instruments for determining the innocence or guilt of a person.

3. The tradesmen had to pay duties at ferries and barrier stations.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a)1 only

(b)2 and 3 only

(c)1 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

b

 

 

With reference to the history of Indian rock-cut architecture, consider the following statements:

  1. The caves at Badami are the oldest surviving rock-cut caves in India.
  2. The Barabar rock-cut caves were originally made for Ajivikas by Emperor Chandragupta Maurya.
  3. At Ellora, caves were made for different faiths.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

c

EXPLANATION:

  • The Barabar Caves are the oldest surviving rock-cut caves in India These rock-cut chambers date back to the 3rd century BC, Maurya period, of Ashoka (r. 273 BC to 232 BC.) and his son, Dasaratha. These caves were used by ascetics from the Ajivika sect, founded by Makkhali Gosala. Ellora is a World Heritage Site The 12 Buddhist (caves 1–12), 17 Hindu (caves 13–29) and 5 Jain (caves 30–34) caves, built in proximity, demonstrate the religious harmony prevalent during this period of Indian history

2014

A community of people called Manganiyars is well-known for their

(a) martial arts in North-East India

(b) musical tradition in North-West India

(c) Classical vocal music in South India

(d) Pietra dura tradition in Central India

 

 

With reference to Buddhist history, tradition and culture in India, consider the following pairs:

Famous shrine    Location
  1. Tabo monastery and temple complex
:  Spiti Valley
      2. Lhotsava        Lhakhang :  Zanskar Valley
      3. Aichi temple complex :  Ladakh

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3 only

c

 

 

Consider the following pairs:

1. Garba : Gujarat

2. Mohiniattam : Odisha

3. Yakshagana : Karnataka

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3 only

 

 

With reference to India”s culture and tradition, what is “Kalaripayattu”?

(a) It is an ancient Bhakti cult of Shaivism still prevalent in some parts of South India.

(b)It is an ancient style bronze and brasswork still found in southern part of Coromandel area.

(c) It is an ancient form of dance-drama and a living tradition in the northern part of Malabar.

(d) It is an ancient martial art and a living tradition in some parts of South India.

d

 

 

With reference to the Indian history of art and culture, consider the following pairs :

 Famous work of sculpture     Site
  1. A grand image of Buddha”s Mahaparinirvana with numerous celestial musicians above and the sorrowful figures of his followers below
:   Ajanta
      2. A huge image of Varaha Avatar (boar incarnation) of Vishnu, as he rescues Goddess Earth from the deep and chaotic waters, sculpted on rock :  Mount Abu
  3. “Arjuna”s Penance”/ “Descent of Ganga” sculpted on the surface of huge boulders

 

:  Mamallapuram

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

c

 

 

Chaitra 1 of the national calendar based on the Saka Era corresponds to which one of the following dates of the Gregorian calendar in a normal year of 365 days?

(a) 22nd March (or 21st March)

(b) 15th May (or 16th May)

(c)31st March (or 30th March)

(d) 21st April (or 20th April)

a

 

 

With reference to the famous Sattriya dance, consider the following statements:

  1. Sattriya is a combination of music, dance and drama.
  2. It is a centuries-old living tradition of Vaishnavites of Assam.
  3. It is based on classical Ragas and Talas of devotional songs composed by Tulsidas, Kabir and Mirabai.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 1 and 2 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3 only

b

 

Which one of the following pairs does not form part of the six systems of Indian Philosophy?

(a) Mimamsa and Vedanta

(b) Nyaya and Vaisheshika

(c) Lokayata and Kapalika

(d) Sankhya and Yoga

c

 

 

With reference to the cultural history of India, the term “Panchayatan” refers to

(a) an assembly of village elders

(b) a religious sect

(c) a style of temple construction

(d) an administrative functionary

c

 

 

Which of the following Kingdoms were associated with the life of the Buddha?

1. Avanti

2. Gandhara

3. Kosala

4. Magadha

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1, 2 and 3  only

(b)2 and 4 only

(c) 3 and 4 only

(d)1, 3 and 4 only

c

 

 

In medieval India, the designations ‘Mahattara’ and ‘Pattakila’ were used for

(a) military officers

(b) village officers

(c) specialists in Vedic rituals

(d) chiefs of craft guilds

b

 

 

Consider the following languages:

1. Gujarati

2. Kannada

3. Telugu

Which of the above has/have been declared as ‘classical language/ languages’ by the Government?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3 only

c

2015

 Which of the following kingdoms were associated with the life of Buddha?
1. Avanti
2. Gandhara
3. Kosala
4. Magadha
Select the correct answer using the code given below
a) 1,2 and 3
b) 2 and 3 only
c) 1,3 and 4
d) 3 and 4 only
Solution: d)

Magadha, Kosala, Vaishali, Vajji etc were the kingdoms and regions that the wandering Buddha covered relentlessly.
Jetavana (Jeta garden) was perhaps the best known amongst the beautiful gardens provided to Buddha’s entourage and it was close to Sravasthi, capital of the Kosala kingdom.
Perhaps the second-most important monastic resort of Buddha was the “bamboo grove” in Rajgriha, capital of Magadha, provided by king Bimbisara.
http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhism/lifebuddha/2_14lbud.htm
http://creative.sulekha.com/the-beautiful-courtesan-amrapali-in-the-life-of-buddha_595970_blog
Source: The question was a repeat from the year 2014. The solution is as per UPSC Official answer key of 2014 GS Prelims.

 

 

Consider the following pairs :
Medieval Indian State : Present Region
1. Champaka : Central India
2. Durgara : Jammu
3. Kuluta : Malabar
Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?
a) 1 and 2
b) 2 only
c) 1 and 3
d) 3 only
Solution: b)

The ninth century saw the rise of a number of hill states in the Himalayas, some of which maintained their identity until recent years, despite their wars with each other and the frequent raids from the men of the plains. States such as Champaka (Chamba – Himachal Pradesh), Durgara (Jammu), Trigarta (jalandhar), Kuluta (Kulu – Himachal pradesh), Kumaon and Garhwal managed to remain outside the main areas of conflict in the northern plains.
Source: http://www.indiansaga.com/history/kashmir.html

 

 

 Consider the following pairs :
Place of Pilgrimage: Location
1. Srisailam : Nallamala Hills
2. Omkareshwar : Satmala Hills
3. Pushkar : Mahadeo Hills
Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?
a) 1 only
b) 2 and 3 only
c) 1 and 3 only
d) 1, 2 and 3
Solution: a)

The town (as well as the mandal) of Srisailam is reputed for the shrine of Lord Mallikarjuna on the flat top of Nallamala Hills.
Omkareshwar is situated on the Mandhata hills in Madhya Pradesh, known in ancient times as Shivpuri. The temple dates back to the Krita Yuga. River Narmada flows here around the Mandhata hill in the form of an Om (Omkaram).
The Mahadeo Hills are a range of hills in Madhya Pradesh state of central India. But, Pushkar lies in Ajmer, Rajasthan.
Source: http://www.jyotirlinga.com/omkareshwar.htm

 

 

Kalamkari painting refers to
(a) a hand-painted cotton textile in South India
(b) a handmade drawing on bamboo handicrafts in North-East India
(e) a block-painted woollen cloth in Western Himalayan region of India
(d) a hand-painted decorative silk cloth in North-Western India
Solution: a)

Kalamkari painting is a type of Indian folk textile art that involves free hand drawing and painting or printing on cloth, mostly cotton. Derived from the Persian language meaning ‘drawing or crafting with pen’, Kalamkari is an ancient form of painting that developed in India over a period of 3,000 years.
Kalahasti and Machilipatnam in Andhra Pradesh, the nerve centres of this art continue to be beehives of Kalamkari activity.
Source: http://lepakshihandicrafts.gov.in/kalamkaripaintings.html

Kalamkari_painting

 

 

Which one of the following was given classical language status recently?
a) Odia
b) Konkani
c) Bhojpuri
d) Assamese
Solution: a)

This question was from UPSC Prelims GS-I paper, 2014.

 

 

4. With reference to art and archaeological history of India, which one among the following was made earliest?
a) Lingaraja Temple at Bhubaneswar
b) Rock-cut Elephant at Dhauli
c) Rock-cut Monuments at Mahabalipuram
d) Varaha Image at Udayagiri

Solution: b)

2016

  1. Which one of the following books of ancient India has the love story of the son of the founder of Sunga dynasty?

(a) Swapnavasavadatta

(b) Malavikagnimitra

(c) Meghadoota

(d) Ratnavali

Solution: B

Justification: It is a Sanskrit play by Kalidasa. It is based on some events of the reign of Pushyamitra Shunga.

The play tells the story of the love of Agnimitra, the Shunga Emperor at Vidisha, for the beautiful hand-maiden of his chief queen.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C4%81lavik%C4%81gnimitram

 

  1. Consider the following pairs:

 Famous place          Region

  1. Bodhgaya             Baghelkhand
  2. Khajuraho             Bundelkhand
  3. Shirdi                   Vidarbha
  4. Nasik (Nashik)     Malwa
  5. Tirupati               Rayalaseema

Which of the pairs given above are correctly matched?

(a) 1, 2 and 4

(b) 2, 3, 4 and 5

(c) 2 and 5 only

(d) 1, 3, 4 and 5

Solution: C

Justification: Baghelkhand is in Central India, whereas Bodhgaya is in Bihar. So, if 1 is wrong, we have options (b) and (c) remaining.

Malwa doesn’t extend to Nasik and Shirdi is in Ahmadnagar (far from Vidarbha). So, 3 and 4 are wrong.

The only answer can be C.

Source: Map-based questions on important regions

 

  1. Consider the following pairs:

 Famous place          Region

  1. Bodhgaya             Baghelkhand
  2. Khajuraho             Bundelkhand
  3. Shirdi                   Vidarbha
  4. Nasik (Nashik)     Malwa
  5. Tirupati               Rayalaseema

Which of the pairs given above are correctly matched?

(a) 1, 2 and 4

(b) 2, 3, 4 and 5

(c) 2 and 5 only

(d) 1, 3, 4 and 5

Solution: C

Justification: Baghelkhand is in Central India, whereas Bodhgaya is in Bihar. So, if 1 is wrong, we have options (b) and (c) remaining.

Malwa doesn’t extend to Nasik and Shirdi is in Ahmadnagar (far from Vidarbha). So, 3 and 4 are wrong.

The only answer can be C.

Source: Map-based questions on important regions

 

  1. With reference to the cultural history of India, the memorizing of chronicles, dynastic histories and Epictales was the profession of who of the following?

(a) Shramana

(b) Parivraajaka

(c) Agrahaarika

(d) Maagadha

Solution: D

Justification: Excerpts from Romila Thapar, Ancient India, “The memorizing of chronicles, dynastic histories, or epic tales was the work of a group of people, the sutas and magadhas.”

http://tinyurl.com/hb6mepk

 

  1. In the context of the history of India, consider the following pairs:

Term                   Description

(1) Eripatti     :   Land, revenue from which was set apart for the  maintenance of the village tank

(2) Taniyurs   :   Villages donated to a single Brahmin or a group of  Brahmins

(3) Ghatikas   :   Colleges generally attached to the temples

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

(a) 1 and 2

(b) 3 only

(c) 2 and 3

(d) 1 and 3

Solution: D

Justification: Statement 1: A special category of land Eripatti or tank land, was known only in south India, This was land donated by individuals, the revenue from which was set apart for the maintenance of’ the village tank, which indicates the dependence of the village on the tank for irrigation. You can see here http://tinyurl.com/hprtzyu

Statement 2: Taniyurs were distinct revenue units under Cholas. You can see here http://tinyurl.com/zchz6ue

Statement 3: In South India centres of higher learning were known as Ghatikas. There was a famous Ghatika at Kanchi, drawing students from far and near. These Ghatikas were run in temples.

http://tinyurl.com/h5acpfv

 

0) What is/are common to the two historical places known as Ajanta and Mahabalipuram?

  1. Both were built in the same period.
  2. Both belong to the same religious denomination.
  3. Both have rock-cut monuments.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) None of the statements given above is correct

Solution: B

Justification: Statement 1: As per ASI Website, “While there is some evidence of architectural activity going back to the period of Mahendravarman-I (AD 600-30), the father of Mamalla, most of the monuments are attributed to the period of Narasimhavarman-I Mamalla (AD 630-68) – the Pallava ruler.

  • On the other hand Ajanta caves were excavated in different periods (circa. 2nd century B.C. to 6th century A.D.) according to the necessity. So, clearly 1 is wrong.

Statement 2: Mahabalipuram contains rock-cut rathas, sculptured scenes on open rocks like Arjuna’s penance, the caves of Govardhanadhari and Mahishasuramardini, the Jala-Sayana Perumal temple (the sleeping Mahavishnu or Chakrin at the rear part of the Shore temple complex). So, it is more linked to the Vaishnavites.

  • On the other hand, Ajanta is linked more to the Buddhist religious denomination.

Statement 2 is also wrong.

Statement 3: Both have rock-cut monuments, because cave cut Chaityas, Viharas and Stupas can be clearly seen at Ajanta. Also, the mural paintings that are made at Ajanta involve some rock-cutting as per ASI.

Mahabalipuram is famous for rock monuments as described above.

Only 3 is correct.

 

25) With reference to the religious history of India, consider the following statements :

  1. The concept of Bodhisattva is central to Hinayana sect of Buddhism.
  2. Bodhisattva is a compassionate one on his way to enlightenment.
  3. Bodhisattva delays achieving his own salvation to help all sentient beings on their path to it.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 2 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: B

Justification: Statement 1: It is central to the Mahayana sect of Buddhism.

In non-Mahayana Buddhism, it usually refers either to Maitreya, the Buddha of the Future, or to the historical Buddha Gautama prior to his enlightenment.

Statement 2 and 3: A bodhisattva is literally a living being (sattva) who aspires to enlightenment (bodhi) and carries out altruistic practices. The bodhisattva ideal is central to the Mahayana Buddhist tradition as the individual who seeks enlightenment both for him- or herself and for others. Clearly 2 is correct.

  • Compassion, an empathetic sharing of the sufferings of others, is the bodhisattva’s greatest characteristic.
  • It is held that the bodhisattva makes four vows expressing a determination to work for the happiness of others: “However innumerable sentient beings are, I vow to save them; however inexhaustible the passions are, I vow to master them; however limitless the teachings are, I vow to study them; however infinite the Buddha-truth is, I vow to attain it.”
  • Clearly 3 is correct.

 

 

 

  1. Who of the following had first deciphered the edicts of Emperor Ashoka?

(a) Georg Bilhler

(b) James Prinsep

(c) Max Muller

(d) William Jones

Solution: B


2017


With reference to Manipuri Sankirtana, consider the following statements:

 

  1. It is a song and dance performance.
  2. Cymbals are the only musical instruments used in the performance.
  3. It is performed to narrate the life and deeds of Lord Krishna.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1, 2 and 3

(b)1 and 3 only

(c)2 and 3 only

(d)1 only

ANS:B

Sankirtana encompasses an array of arts performed to mark religious occasions and various stages in the life of the Vaishnava people of the Manipur plains.

 

Sankirtana practices centre on the temple, where performers narrate the lives and deeds of Krishna through song and dance. Hence, statement 1 and 3 are correct.

In a typical performance, two drummers and about ten singer-dancers perform in a hall or domestic courtyard encircled by seated devotees. Hence, statement 2 is not correct.

 

 

With reference to the difference between the culture of Rigvedic Aryans and Indus Valley people, which of the following statements is/are correct?

 

  1. Rigvedic Aryans used the coat of mail and helmet in warfare whereas the people of Indus Valley Civilization did not leave any evidence of using them.
  2. Rigvedic Aryans knew gold, silver and copper whereas Indus Valley people knew only copper and iron.
  3. Rigvedic Aryans had domesticated the horse whereas there is no evidence of Indus Valley people having aware of this animal.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a)1 only

(b)2 and 3 only

(c)1 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:A

Statement 1 is correct: Rigvedic Aryans used the coat of mail and helmet in warfare whereas the people of Indus Valley Civilization did not leave any evidence of using them.

 

Statement 2 is not correct: Various materials were used in Harappan civilisation to make beads: stones like carnelian, jasper, crystal, quartz and steatite; metals like copper, bronze and gold; and shell, faience and terracotta or burnt clay. Some beads were made of two or more stones, cemented together, some of stone with gold caps.

Statement 3 is not correct: Evidences of the horse comes from a superficial level of Mohenjo daro and from a terracotta figurine from Lothal. The remains of the horse have been reported from Surkotada belonging to around 2000BC. A few horse’s teeth have been found in the lowest stratum of the Baluchistan site of Rana Ghundal, probably dating from several centuries earlier than the foundation of Harappa. This would indicate that horse-riding nomads found their way to N.-W. India in small numbers long before the Aryan invasion.

Which of the following is/are famous for Sun temples?

 

  1. Arasavalli
  2. Amarakantak
  3. Omkareshwar

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a)1 only

(b)2 and 3 only

(c)1 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:A

The Sun Temple is situated in Arasavalli Village in Andhra Pradesh. Sun temples are not located in Amarkantak and Omkareshwar.

 

Consider the following pairs:

 

 

Traditions   Communities
 1 Chaliha Sahib Festival : Sindhis
 2 Nanda Raj Jaat Yatra : Gonds
 3 Wari-Warkari : Santhals

 

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

(a)1 only

(b)2 and 3 only

(c)1 and 3 only

(d)None of the above

ANS:A

Pair 1 is matched correctly: Chalia sahib is the festival of the Sindhis which involves devotees fasting for days. Pair 2 is not matched correctly: The Nanda Devi Jat is celebrated every year in the Nanda Devi temples spread across Garhwal and Kumaon. The festival commences on the day earmarked for the Devi’s visit to her maiti or parents’ home and culminates with the return to her husband’s home. This tradition is beautifully expressed in the folk songs of Uttarakhand. Pair 3 is not matched correctly: Pandharpur Wari or Wari (Vari) is an annual pilgrimage to Pandharpur – the seat of the god Vithoba in Maharashtra, in honour of the deity. Palakhiscarrying the paduka (foot prints) of various saints – most notably Dnyaneshwar and Tukaram – from the Warkari sect are taken from their respective shrines to Pandharpur.

 

The painting of Bodhisattva Padmapani is one of the most famous and oft-illustrated paintings at

 

(a)Ajanta

(b)Badami

(c)Bagh

(d)Ellora

ANS: A

The painting is on the back wall of the interior hall before the shrine-antechamber in Cave No. 1 at Ajanta dating back to the late fifth century CE. The Boddhisattva is holding a padma (lotus), has large shoulders, and has three bents in the body creating a movement in the picture space. The modelling is soft. The figure of the Boddhisattva is wearing a big crown in which detailed rendering is visible.

 

 

With reference to the religious history of India, consider the following statements:

 

1. Sautrantika and Sammitiya were the sects of Jainism.

2. Sarvastivadin held that the constituents of phenomena were not wholly momentary, but existed forever in a latent form.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 only

(b)2 only

(c)Both 1 and 2

(d)Neither 1 nor 2

ANS:B

Statement 1 is not correct: Sautrantika and Sammitya were the the sects of Buddhism. Statement 2 is correct: Sarvastivadins (They who say ‘All is’), had the view that the constituents of phenomena (dharmas ) were not wholly momentary, but existed forever in a latent form.

2018

Which reference to Indian history, who among the following is a future Buddha, yet to come to save the world?

 

(a)Avalokiteshvara

(b)Lokesvara

(c)Maityera

(d)Padmapani

ANS:C

The universe of the Great Vehicle contains numerous Bodhisattvas, chief of whom, from the earthly point of view, is Avalokiteshwar (“The Lord who Looks Down”), also called Padmapani (“The Lotus-Bearer”) also called Lokesvara in Sanskrit ( The Lord of the World).

 His special attribute is compassion, and his helping hand reaches even to Avici, the deepest and most unpleasant of the Buddhist purgatories.

Another important Bodhisattva isManjusriwhose special activity is to stimulate the understanding, and who is depicted with a naked sword in one hand, to destroy error and falsehood, and a book in the other, describing the ten paramilas, or great spiritual perfections, which are the cardinal virtues developed by Bodhisattvas.

Vajrapani, a sterner Bodhi¬ sattva, is the foe of sin and evil, and, like the god Indra, bears a thunderbolt in his handThe gentle Maitreya, the future Buddha, is worshipped as a Bodhisattva. 

Also worthy of mention is Ksitigarbha, the guardian of the purgatories, who is thought of not as a fierce torturer, but rather as the governor of a model prison, doing his best to make life tolerable for his charges, and helping them to earn remission of sentence.

 

Which one of the following foreign travellers elaborately discussed about diamonds and diamond mines of India?

 

(a)Francois Bernier

(b)Jean-Baptiste Tavernier

(c)Jean de Thevenot

(d)Abbe Barthelemy Carre

ANS:B

The Hope Diamond, said to be mined in the Kollur mines in Andhra Pradesh, and acquired by French gem merchant, Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, in 1666. It is unclear as to how the merchant got the diamond, but according to the Smithsonian, Tavernier purchased the 112 3/16 carat diamond who then sold it to French King Louis XIV of France.

 

Which reference to the religious practices in India, the “Sthanakvasi” sect belongs to

 

(a)Buddhism

(b)Jainism

(c)Vaishnavism

(d)Shaivism

ANS:B

 

With reference to cultural history of India, consider the following statements:

 

  1. Most of the Tyagaraja Kritis are devotional songs in praise of Lord Krishna.
  2. Tyagaraja created several new ragas.
  3. Annamacharya and Tyagaraja are contemporaries.
  4. Annamacharyakirtanas are devotional songs in praise of Lord Venkateshwara.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

(a)1 and 3 only

(b)2 and 4 only

(c)1, 2 and 3

(d)2, 3 and 4

ANS:B

 

The well-known painting “Bani Thani” belongs to the

 

(a)Bundi school

(b)Jaipur school

(c)Kangra school

(d)Kishangarh school

ANS:D


2019


Which one of the following is not a Harappan site?

(a)Chanhudaro

(b)Kot Diji

(c)Sohgaura

(d)Desalpur

ANS:C

In which of the following relief sculpture inscriptions is ‘Ranyo Ashoka’ (King Ashoka) mentioned along with the stone portrait of Ashoka?

(a)Kanganahalli

(b)Sanchi

(c)Shahbazgarhi

(d)Sohgaura

ANS:A

 

Consider the following statements:

1. Deification of the Buddha

2. Trading the path of Bodhisattvas

3. Image worship and rituals

Which of the above is/are the feature/features of Mahayana Buddhism?

(a)1 only

(b)1 and 2 only

(c)2 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:D

 

Building ‘Kalyaana Mandapas’ was a notable feature in the temple construction in the kingdom of

(a)Chalukya

(b)Chandela

(c)Rashtrakuta

(d)Vijayanagara

ANS:D

 


2020


Q11. With reference to the cultural history of India, which one of the following is the correct description of the term ‘paramitas’?

(a) The earliest dharmashastra texts written in aphoristic (Sutra) style

(b) Philosophical schools that did not accept the authority of Vedas.

(c) Perfections whose attainment led to the Bodhisattva path

(d) Powerful merchant guilds of early medieval south India.

Answer: C

These are 10 perfections, including generosity, compassion etc. on the completion of which one gets nearer the path of a Bodhisattva.

 

 

16. With reference to the Scholars/literatures of ancient India, consider the following statements:

  1. Panini is associated with Pushyamitra
  2. Amarsimha is associated with Harshavardhana
  3. Kalidasa is associated with chandragupta-II

Which of the above given statements is/are correct-

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: C

S1: Pushyamitra Shunga ruled c. 185 – c. 149 BCE, but Panini is dated to about 4th BCE. So, 1 is wrong. Also, as you would see below, since 2 is correct,

S2: Amarasimha (IAST: Amara-siṃha, c. CE 375) was a Sanskrit grammarian and poet from ancient India, of whose personal history hardly anything is known. He is said to have been “one of the nine gems that adorned the throne of Vikramaditya, not Harshavardhana.

S3: The noted Sanskrit poet Kalidasa is said to be the court poet of Chandragupta II.

 

 

Q48. The Vital Vidhvansak, the first monthly journal to have the untouchable people as its target audience was published by

(a) Gopal Babu Walangkar

(b) Jyotiba Phule

(c) Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

(d) Bhimarao Ramji Ambedkar

Answer: A

In 1888, Walangkar began publishing the monthly journal titled Vital-Vidhvansak (Destroyer of Brahmanical or Ceremonial Pollution), which was the first to have the untouchable people as its target audience. He also wrote articles for Marathi-language newspapers such as Sudharak and Deenbandhu, as well as composing couplets in Marathi that were intended to inspire the people.

 

Q49. With reference to the history of India, the terms Kulyavapa and dronavapa denote

(a) Measurement of land

(b) Coins of different monetary value

(c) Classification of urban land

(d) Religious rituals

Answer: A

 

Q50. Who among the following rulers advised his subjects through this inscription?

“Whosoever praises his religious sect or blames other sects out of excessive devotion to his own sect, with the view of glorifying his own sect, he rather injures his own sect very severely ”

(a) Ashoka

(b) Samudragupta

(c) Harshavardhana

(d) Krishnadevaraya

Answer: A

 

Q57. With references to the history of India, consider the following pairs:

Famous Place                                       Present State
1. Bhilsa                                              -Madhya Pradesh
2. Dwarasamudra                         -Maharashtra
3. Girinagar                                       -Gujarat
4. Sthanesvara                                 -Uttar Pradesh

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

(a) 1 and 3 only

(b) 1 and 4 only

(c)2 and 3 only

(d) 2 and 4 only

Answer: A

S1: For e.g. Bhilsa topes about Bhilsa is a famous work on this site in MP.

S2: Dwarasamudra was in Karnataka, as a regal capital of the Hoysalas.

S3: This is straightforward.

S4: This is in Haryana. As of now, it is known to host a monastic cluster. Sthanesvara Mahadev Temple is also at Thanesar. It was here that the Pandavas prayed to Lord Shiva.

 

 

Q62. With reference to the period of Gupta dynasty in ancient India, the towns Ghantasala, kadura and Chaul were well known as

(a) ports handling foreign trade.

(b) capitals of powerful kingdoms.

(c)places of exquisite stone art and architecture.

(d) important Buddhist pilgrimage centres.

Answer: A

 

Q91. With reference to the cultural history of India, consider the following pairs:
1. Parivrajaka  –   Renunciant and wanderer
2. Shramana   –    Priest with a high status
3. Upasaka     –      Lay follower of Buddhism

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1and 2 only

(b) 1 and 3only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: B

 

Q16. With reference to the Scholars/literatures of ancient India, consider the following statements:

  1. Panini is associated with Pushyamitra
  2. Amarsimha is associated with Harshavardhana
  3. Kalidasa is associated with chandragupta-II

Which of the above given statements is/are correct-

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: C

 

Q11. With reference to the cultural history of India, which one of the following is the correct description of the term ‘paramitas’?

(a) The earliest dharmashastra texts written in aphoristic (Sutra) style

(b) Philosophical schools that did not accept the authority of Vedas.

(c) Perfections whose attainment led to the Bodhisattva path

(d) Powerful merchant guilds of early medieval south India.

Answer: C

These are 10 perfections, including generosity, compassion etc. on the completion of which one gets nearer the path of a BODHISATTVA

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