ENVIRONMENT UPSC/IAS PRELIM QUESTION 2020-2011 YEARWISE

0
1048

2011

Consider the following statements:

  1. Biodiversity is normally greater in the lower latitudes as compared to the higher latitudes.
  2. Along the mountain gradients, biodiversity is normally greater in the lower altitudes as compared to the higher altitudes.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

c

 

 

The “Red Data Books” published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resource (IUCN) contain lists of

  1. Endemic plant and animal species present in the biodiversity hotspots.
  2. Threatened plant and animal species.
  3. Protected sites for conservation of nature and natural resources in various countries.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a) 1 and 3

(b) 2 only

(c) 2 and 3

(d) 3 only

b

 

 

Which one of the following is not a site for in-situ method of conservation of flora?

(a) Biosphere Reserve

(b) Botanical Garden

(c) National Park

(d) Wildlife Sanctuary

b

 

 

Biodiversity forms the basis for human existence in the following ways:

 

  1. Soil formation
  2. Prevention of soil erosion
  3. Recycling of waste
  4. Pollination of crops

 

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only

(b) 2, 3 and 4 only

(c) 1 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2 3 and 4

d

 

 

The surface of a lake is frozen in severe winter, but the water at its bottom is still liquid. What is the reason?

(a) Ice is a bad conductor of heat.

(b) Since the surface of the lake is at the same temperature as the air, no heat is lost .

(c) The density of water is maximum at 4ºC.

(d) None of the statements (a ), (b ) and (c ) given above is correct

a

 

 

Consider the following:

1. Photosynthesis

2. Respiration

3. Decay of organic matter

4. Volcanic action

Which of the above add carbon dioxide to the carbon cycle on Earth?

(a) 1 and 4 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 2, 3 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

c

 

 

There is a concern over the increase in harmful algal blooms in the seawaters of India. What could be the causative factors for this phenomenon?

 

  1. Discharge of nutrients from the estuaries.
  2. Run-off from the land during the monsoon.
  3. Upwelling in the seas.

 

Select the correct answer from the codes given below:

(a) 1 only

 

 

 

(b) 1 and 2 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

d

 

 

The Himalayan Range is very rich in species diversity. Which one among the following is the most appropriate reason for this phenomenon?

(a) It has high rainfall that supports luxuriant vegetative growth.

(b) It is a confluence of different bio-geographical zones.

(c) Exotic and invasive species have not been introduced in this region.

(d) It has less human interference.

b

 

 

In the context of ecosystem productivity, marine upwelling zones are important as they increase the marine productivity by bringing the .

1. Decomposer microorganism to the surface.

2. Nutrients to the surface.

3. Bottom-dwelling organisms to the surface.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 2

(b) 2 only

(c) 2 and 3

(d) 3 only

b

 

 

Human activities in the recent past have caused the increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, but a lot of it does not remain in the lower atmosphere because of

1. Its escape into the outer stratosphere.

2. The photosynthesis by phytoplankton in the oceans.

3. The trapping of air in the polar ice caps.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 2

(b) 2 only

(c) 2 and 3

(d) 3 only

b

 

 

Three of the following criteria have contributed to the recognition of Western Ghats-Sri Lanka and Indo-Burma regions as hotspots of biodiversity:

  1. Species richness
  2. Vegetation density
  3. Endemism
  4. Ethno-botanical importance
  5. Threat perception
  6. Adaptation of flora and fauna to warm and humid conditions

Which three of the above are correct criteria in this context?

(a) 1 2 and 6

(b) 2, 4 and 6

(c) 1, 3 and 5

(d) 3, 4 and 6

c

 

 

Regarding “carbon credits”, which one of the following statements is not correct?

(a) The carbon credit system was ratified in conjunction with the Kyoto Protocol.

(b) Carbon credits are awarded to countries or groups that have reduced greenhouse gases below their emission quota.

(c) The goal of the carbon credit system is to limit the increase of carbon dioxide emission.

(d) Carbon credits are traded at a price fixed from time to time of the United Nation Environment Programme.

d

 

 

Consider the following:

1. Carbon dioxide

2. Oxides of Nitrogen

3. Oxides of Sulphur

Which of the above is/are the emission/emissions from coal combustion at thermal power plants?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

d

2012

Vultures which used to be very common in Indian countryside some years ago are rarely seen nowadays. This is attributed to

 

(a) the destruction of their nesting sites by new invasive species.

(b) a drug used by cattle owners for treating their diseased cattle.

(c) scarcity of food available to them.

(d) a widespread, persistent and fatal disease among them.

 

 

What would happen if phytoplankton of an ocean is completely destroyed for some reason?

 

1. The ocean as a carbon sink would be adversely affected.

2. The food chains in the ocean would be adversely affected.

3. The density of ocean water would drastically decrease.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

ANS:A

 

 

Consider the following:

1. Black-necked crane

2. Cheetah

3. Flying squirrel

4. Snow leopard

Which of the above are naturally found in India?

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only

(b) 1, 3 and 4 only

 

(c) 2 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

b

 

 

Which of the following can be threats to the biodiversity of a geographical area?

1. Global warming

2. Fragmentation of habitat

3. Invasion of alien species

4. Promotion of vegetarianism

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

a

 

 

What is the difference between the antelopes Oryx and Chiru?

(a) Oryx is adapted to live in hot and arid areas whereas Chiru is adapted to live in steppes and semi-desert areas of cold high mountains.

(b) Oryx is poached for its antlers whereas Chiru is poached for its musk.

(c) Oryx exists in western India only whereas Chiru exists in north-east India only.

(d) None of the statements (a ), (b ) and (c ) given above is correct.

a

 

 

The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment describes the following major categories of ecosystem services—provisioning, supporting, regulating, preserving and cultural. Which one of the following is supporting service?

(a) Production of food and water

(b) Control of climate and disease

(c) Nutrient cycling and crop pollination

(d) Maintenance of diversity

c

 

 

Which one of the following groups of animals belongs to the category of endangered species?

(a) Great Indian Bustard, Musk Deer, Red Panda and Asiatic Wild Ass.

(b) Kashmir Stag, Cheetal, Blue Bull and Great Indian Bustard.

(c) Snow Leopard, Swamp Deer, Rhesus Monkey and Saras (Crane).

(d) Lion-tailed Macaque, Blue Bull, Hanuman Langur and Cheetal.

a

 

 

Consider the following kinds of organisms:

1. Bat

2. Bee

3. Bird

Which of the above is/are pollinating agent/agents?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

d

 

 

In which one among the following categories of protected areas in India are local people not allowed to collect and use the biomass?

(a) Biosphere Reserves

(b) National Parks

(c) Wetlands declared under Ramsar Convention

(d) Wildlife Sanctuaries

b

 

 

Consider the following protected areas:

  1. Bandipur
  2. Bhitarkanika
  3. Manas
  4. Sunderbans

Which of the above are declared Tiger Reserves?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 1, 3 and 4 only

(c) 2, 3 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

b

 

 

Other than resistance to pests, what are the prospects for which genetically engineered plants have been created?

1. To enable them to withstand drought.

2. To increase the nutritive value of the produce.

3. To enable them to grow and do photosynthesis in spaceships and space stations.

4. To increase their shelf life.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 and 4 only

(c) 1, 2 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

c

 

 

The acidification of oceans is increasing. Why is this phenomenon a cause of concern:

1. The growth and survival of calcareous phytoplankton will be adversely affected.

2. The growth and survival of coral reefs will be adversely affected.

3. The survival of some animals that have phytoplanktonic larvae will be adversely affected.

4. The cloud seeding and formation of clouds will be adversely affected.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only

(b) 2 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

a

 

 

With reference to the wetlands of India, consider the following statements:

1. The country’s total geographical area under the category of wetlands is recorded more in Gujarat as compared to other States.

2. In India, the total geographical area of coastal wetlands is larger than that of inland wetlands.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

a

 

 

Consider the following statements:

Chlorofluorocarbons, known as ozone-depleting substances, are used-

1. In the production of plastic foams.

2. In the production of tubeless tyres.

3. In cleaning certain electronic components.

4. As pressurizing agents in aerosol cans.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only

(b) 4 only

(c) 1, 3 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

c

 

 

Lead, ingested or inhaled, is a health hazard. After the addition of lead to petrol has been banned, what still are the sources of lead poisoning?

1. Smelting units

2. Pens and pencils

3. Paints

4. Hair oils and cosmetics

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only

(b) 1 and 3 only

(c) 2 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

b

 

 

Consider the following kinds of organisms:

1. Bacteria

2. Fungi

3. Flowering plants

Some species of which of the above kinds of organisms are employed biopesticides?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

d

 

 

How does National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) help in protecting the Indian Agriculture?

1. NBA checks the biopiracy and protects the indigenous and traditional genetic resources.

2. NBA directly monitors and supervises the scientific research on genetic modification of crop plants.

3. Application for Intellectual Property Rights related to genetic/biological resources cannot be made without the approval of NBA.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c)1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

c

2013

Consider the following fauna and India:

1. Gharial

2. Leatherback turtle

3. Swamp deer

Which of the above is/are endangered?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 1, 2 and 3

(d) None

c

 

 

Which one of the following terms describes not only the physical space occupied by an organism, but also its functional role in the community of organisms?

(a) Ecotone

(b) Ecological niche

(c) Habitat

(d)Home range

b

 

 

In which of the following States is lion-tailed macaque found in its natural habitat?

 

  1. Tamil Nadu
  2. Kerala
  3. Karnataka
  4. Andhra Pradesh

 

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only

(b) 2 only

(c) 1, 3 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

a

 

 

Which of the following adds/add nitrogen to the soil?

1. Excretion of urea by animals

2. Burning of coal by man

3. Death of vegetation

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

c

 

 

Consider the following organisms:

1. Agaricus

2. Nostoc

3. Spirogyra

Which of the above is/are used as biofertilizer/biofertilizers?

(a) 1 and 2

(b) 2 only

(c) 2 and 3

(d) 3 only

b

EXPLANATION:Agaricus:-Agaricus is a genus of mushrooms containing both edible and poisonous species, with possibly over 300 members worldwide.

Nostoc:-Bioinoculants are the microbial preparations that enhance the uptake of nutrients by plants from the soil, increase the avaliability of the nutrients and stimulate plant growth.There are two types of organisms which are used as inoculants: symbiotic organisms (such as Rhizobium, Synorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Nostoc, Anabaena, etc.) and non-symbiotic organisms (such as Azotobacter, Azospirilum, Beijerinckia, etc.)

Spirogyra:-Spirogyra is a genus of filamentous green algae of the order Zygnematales, named for the helical or spiral arrangement of the chloroplasts that is diagnostic of the genus

 

 

Consider the following pairs:

National Park       River flowing through the Park
1. Corbett National Park :   Ganga
2. Kaziranga National Park :  Manas
3.  Silent Valley National Park

 

:

:

 Kaveri

Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?

(a)1 and 2

(b)3 only

(c)1 and 3

(d) None

d

 

 

With reference to food chains in ecosystems, consider the following statements:

1. A food chains illustrates the order in which a chain of organisms feed upon each other.

2. Food chains are found within the populations of a species.

3. A food chain illustrates the numbers of each organism which are eaten by others.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 1 and 2 only

(c) 1, 2 and 3

(d) None

a

 

 

Acid rain is caused by the pollution of environment by

(a) carbon dioxide and nitrogen

(b) carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide

(c) ozone and carbon dioxide

(d) nitrous oxide and sulphur dioxide

d

 

 

Due to improper/indiscriminate disposal of hold and used computers or their parts, which of the following are released into the environment as e-waste?

1. Beryllium

2. Cadmium

3. Chromium

4. Heptachlor

5. Mercury

6. Lead

7. Plutonium

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1, 3, 4, 6 and 7 only

(b) 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 only

(c) 2, 4, 5 and 7 only

(d) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7

b

 

 

Improper handling and storage of cereal grains and oilseeds result in the production of toxins known as aflatoxins which are not generally destroyed by normal cooking process. Aflatoxins are produced by

(a) bacteria

(b) protozoa

(c) moulds

(d) viruses

c

 

 

Consider the following pairs:

     
1. Nokrek Biosphere Reserve :   Garo Hills
2.  Logtak (Loktak) Lake :  Barail Range
 3. Namdapha National Park :  Dafla Hills

 

Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?

(a)1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c)1, 2 and 3

(d) None

a

 

 

 

Consider the following animals:

1. Sea cow

2. Sea horse

3. Sea lion

Which of the above is/are mammal/mammals?

(a) 1 only

(b) 1 and 3 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

b

 

Which of the following can be found as pollutants in the drinking water in some parts of India?

1. Arsenic

2. Sorbitol

3. Fluoride

4. Formaldehyde

5. Uranium

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a) 1 and 3 only

(b) 2, 4 and 5 only

(c) 1, 3 and 5 only

(d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

c

 

 

 

Consider the following:

1. Star tortoise

2. Monitor lizard

3. Pygmy hog

4. Spider monkey

Which of the above are naturally found in India?

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

a

2014

There is some concern regarding the nanoparticles of some chemical elements that are used by the industry in the manufacture of various products. Why?

  1. They can accumulate in the environment and contaminate water and soil.
  2. They can enter the food chains.
  3. They can trigger the production of free radicals.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

d

 

 

Consider the following statements:

  1. Animal Welfare Board of India is established under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
  2. National Tiger Conservation Authority is a statutory body.
  3. National Ganga River Basin Authority is chaired by the Prime Minister.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 2 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

b

 

 

With reference to “Eco-Sensitive Zones”, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. Eco-Sensitive Zones are the areas that are declared under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

2. The purpose of the declaration of Eco-Sensitive Zones is to prohibit all kinds of human activities in those zones except agriculture.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

 

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

d

EXPLANATION:

  • Declared under Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. Activities prohibited are generally specific to each zone and notified separately.

 

Which one of the following is the correct sequence of a food chain?

(a) Diatoms-Crustaceans-Herrings

(b) Crustaceans-Diatoms-Herrings

(c) Diatoms-Herrings-Crustaceans

(d) Crustaceans-Herrings-Diatom

a

 

 

Consider the following statements regarding “Earth Hour”:

1. It is an initiative of UNEP and UNESCO.

2. It is a movement in which the participants switch off the lights for one hour on a certain day every year.

3. It is a movement to raise the awareness about the climate change and the need to save the planet.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

 

(a) 1 and 3 only

(b) 2 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

c

 

 

Consider the following international agreements:

1. The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture.

2. The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification.

3. The World Heritage Convention.

Which of the above has/have a bearing on the biodiversity?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c)1 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

d

 

 

Among the following organisms, which one does not belong to the class of other three?

(a) Crab

(b) Mite

(c) Scorpion

(d) Spider

a

 

 

Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding vegetative propagation of plants?

1. Vegetative propagation produces clonal population.

2. Vegetative propagation helps in eliminating the virus.

3. Vegetative propagation can be practiced most of the year.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3 only

c

 

 

With reference to Neem tree, consider the following statements:

1. Neem oil can be used as a pesticide to control the proliferation of some species of insects and mites.

2. Neem seeds are used in the manufacture of biofuels and hospital detergents.

3. Neem oil has applications in pharmaceutical industry.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

c

 

 

The scientific view is that the increase in global temperature should not exceed 2 0 C above pre-industrial level. If the global temperature increases beyond 3C above the pre-industrial level, what can be its possible impact/impacts on the world?

1. Terrestrial biosphere tends toward a net carbon source.

2. Widespread coral mortality will occur.

3. All the global wetlands will permanently disappear.

4. Cultivation of cereals will not be possible anywhere in the world.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 1 and 2 only

(c) 2, 3 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4 only

b

 

 

The most important strategy for the conservation of biodiversity together with traditional human life is the establishment of

(a) biosphere

(b) reserves

(c) national parks

(d) wildlife sanctuaries

a

 

 

Consider the following pairs:

Wetlands   Confluence of rivers
Harike Wetlands : Confluence of Beas and Satluj/ Sutlej
Keoladeo Ghana National Park : Confluence of Banas and Chambal
Kolleru Lake : Confluence of Musi and Krishna

Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3 only

a

 

 

Which of the following are some important pollutants released by steel industry in India?

1. Oxides of sulphur

2. Oxide of nitrogen

3. Carbon monoxide

4. Carbon dioxide

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1, 3 and 4 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4 only

d

 

 

Lichens, which are capable of initiating ecolological succession even on a bare rock, are actually a symbiotic association of

(a) algae and bacteria

(b) algae and fungi

(c) bacteria and fungi

(d) fungi and mosses

b

 

 

If you walk through countryside, you are likely to see some birds stalking alongside the cattle to seize the insects disturbed by their movement through grasses. Which of the following is/are such bird/birds?

1. Painted Stork

2. Common Myna

3. Black-necked Crane

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2

(b) 2 only

(c) 2 and 3

(d) 3 only

b

 

 

Which of the following adds/add carbon dioxide to the carbon cycle on the planet Earth?

1. Volcanic action

2. Respiration

3. Photosynthesis

4. Decay of organic matter

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

 

(a) 1 and 3 only

(b) 2 only

(c) 1, 2 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4 only

c

 

 

Consider the following:

1. Bats

2. Bears

3. Rodents

The phenomenon of hibernation can be observed in which of the above kinds of animals ?

(a) 1and 2 only

(b) 2 only

(c) 1, 2 and 3 only

(d) Hibernation cannot be observed in any of the above

c

 

 

Brominated flame retardants are used in many household products like mattresses and upholstery. Why is there some concern about their use?

1. They are highly resistant to degradation in the environment.

2. They are able to accumulate in humans and animals.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

 

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

c

 

 

Other than poaching, what are the possible reasons for the decline in the population of Gangas River Dolphins?

1. Construction of dams and barrages on rivers.

2. Increase in the population of crocodiles in rivers.

3. Getting trapped in fishing nets accidentally.

4. Use of synthetic fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals in crop-fields in the vicinity of rivers.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1, 3 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4 only

c

 

 

Which of the following phenomena might have influenced the evolution of organisms?

1. Continental drift

2. Glacial cycles

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

c

 

 

With reference to a conservation organization called “Wetlands International”, which of the following statement/s is/are correct?

  1. It is an intergovernmental organizatioin formed by the countries which are signatories to Ramsar Convention.
  2. It works at the field level to develop and mobilize knowledge, and use the practical experience to advocate for better policies.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

b

 

 

Consider the following pairs : Country:

  1. Dampa Tiger Reserve : Mizoram
  2. Gumti Wildlife Sanctuary : Sikkim
  3. Saramati Peak : Nagaland

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3 only

c

 

 

With reference to “Global Environment Facility”, which of the following statements is/are correct?

(a)It serves as financial mechanism for “Convention on Biological Diversity” and “United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change”.

(b)It undertakes scientific research on environmental issues at global level.

(c)It is an agency under OECD to facilitate the transfer of technology and funds to underdeveloped countries with specific aim to protect their environment.

(d)Both a and b.

a

 

 

With reference to Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS), consider the following statements:

1. It is an autonomous organization under the Ministry of Environment and Forests.

2. It strives to conserve nature through action-based research, education and public awareness.

3. It organizes and conducts nature trails and camps for the general public.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 3 only

(b) 2 only

(c)2 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3 only

c

 

 

 

Consider the following pairs :

Programme/Project                                   Ministry

1. Drought-Prone Area Programme : Ministry of Agriculture.

2. Desert Development Programme : Ministry of Environment and Forests.

3. National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas : Ministry of Rural Development.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

 

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 1, 2 and 3  only

(d) None of the above

d

 

If a wetland of international importance is brought under the “Montreux Record”, what does it imply?

(a) Changes in ecological character have occurred, are occurring or are likely to occur in the wetland as a result of human interference.

(b) The country in which the wetland is located should enact a low to prohibit any human activity within five kilometres from the edge of the wetland.

(c)The survival of the wetland depends on the cultural practices and traditions of certain communities living in its vicinity and therefore the cultural diversity therein should not be destroyed.

(d) It is given the status of “World Heritage Site”.

a

2015

Which of the following statements regarding ‘Green Climate Fund’ is/are correct?
1. It is intended to assist the developing countries in adaptation and mitigation practices to counter climate change.
2. It is founded under the aegis of UNEP, OECD, Asian Development Bank and World Bank

Select the correct answer using the code given below.
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 nor 2
Solution: a)

The Green Climate Fund (GCF) is a fund within the framework of the UNFCCC founded as a mechanism to redistribute money from the developed to the developing world, in order to assist the developing countries in adaptation and mitigation practices to counter climate change.
The Green Climate Fund was designated as an operating entity of the financial mechanism of the UNFCCC, in accordance with Article 11 of the Convention. Arrangements will be concluded between the Conference of the Parties (COP) and the Fund to ensure that it is accountable to, and functions under the guidance of, the COP.
The Fund is governed and supervised by a Board that will have full responsibility for funding decisions and that receives the guidance of the COP.
Source: http://www.gcfund.org/about/the-fund.html

 

 

 What is Rio+20 Conference, often mentioned in the news?
a) It is the United nations Conference on Sustainable Development
b) It is a Ministerial Meeting of the World Trade Organization
c)It is a Conference of the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change
d) It is a Conference of the Member Countries of the Convention on Biological Diversity
Solution: a)

The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD), also known as Rio 2012, Rio+20, or Earth Summit 2012 was the third international conference on sustainable development aimed at reconciling the economic and environmental goals of the global community. Hosted by Brazil in Rio de Janeiro from 13 to 22 June 2012, Rio+20 was a 20-year follow-up to the 1992 Earth Summit / United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED).
Source: http://uncsd2012.org/about.html

 

 

Which one of the following is associated with the issue of control and phasing out of the use of ozone-depleting substances?
a) Bretton Woods Conference
b) Montreal Protocol
c) Kyoto Protocol
d) Nagoya Protocol
Solution: b)

The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer) is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion.
Bretton Woods conference relates to IMF and World Bank.
Kyoto Protocol is about cutting emissions of greenhouse gases.
Nagoya protocol is about benefit sharing from the gains by genetic resources.
Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montreal_Protocol

 

 

 Which one of the following is the national aquatic animal of India?
a)Saltwater crocodile
b) Olive ridley turtle
c) Gangetic dolphin
d) Gharial
Solution: c)

River Dolphin is the National Aquatic Animal of India. This mammal is also said to represent the purity of the holy Ganga as it can only survive in pure and fresh water.
They are locally known as susu, because of the noise it makes while breathing. This species inhabits parts of the Ganges, Meghna and Brahmaputra rivers in India, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh, and the Karnaphuli River in Bangladesh.
River dolphin is a critically endangered species in India and therefore, has been included in the Schedule I for the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. The main reasons for decline in population of the species are poaching and habitat degradation due to declining flow, heavy siltation, construction of barrages causing physical barrier for this migratory species.
Source: http://www.knowindia.gov.in/knowindia/national_symbols.php?id=8

gangetic dolphin

 

 

With reference to ‘dugong’, a mammal found in India, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. It is a herbivorous marine animal.
2. It is found along the entire coast of India
3. It is given legal protection under Schedule 1 of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
a) 1 and 2
b) 2 only
c) 1 and 3
d) 3 only
Solution: c)

The dugong is the only living representative of the once-diverse family Dugongidae; its closest modern relative, Steller’s sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas), was hunted to extinction in the 18th century. The dugong is the only strictly marine herbivorous mammal, as all species of manatee use fresh water to some degree.
In India, it is found off the Gujarat Coast (Gulf of Kutch), Tamil Nadu coast (Gulf of Mannar), Palk Bay and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dugong#Northern_Indian_Ocean
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/environment/flora-fauna/task-force-on-dugong-soon/articleshow/21790491.cms

dugong image

 

 

With reference to the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. IUCN is an organ of the United Nations and CITES is an international agreement between governments
2. IUCN runs thousands of field projects around the world to better manage natural environments.
3. CITES is legally binding on the States that have joined it, but this Convention does not take the place of national laws.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
a) 1 only
b) 2 and 3 only
c) 1 and 3 only
d) 1, 2 and 3
Solution: b)

IUCN is a voluntary organization, not an agency of United Nations. Even if you knew this much, you could eliminate all other options to select B. Some facts about IUCN:
• Founded in 1948 as the world’s first global environmental organisation
• Today the largest professional global conservation network
• A leading authority on the environment and sustainable development
• More than 1,200 member organizations including 200+ government and 900+ non-government organizations
• A neutral forum for governments, NGOs, scientists, business and local communities to find practical solutions to conservation and development challenges
• Thousands of field projects and activities around the world
CITES was drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). States (countries) adhere voluntarily to the agreement.
States that have agreed to be bound by the Convention (‘joined’ CITES) are known as Parties.
Although CITES is legally binding on the Parties – in other words they have to implement the Convention – it does not take the place of national laws. Rather it provides a framework to be respected by each Party, which has to adopt its own domestic legislation to ensure that CITES is implemented at the national level.
Sources: https://www.iucn.org/about/
https://cites.org/eng/disc/what.php

 

 

Which of the following National Parks is unique in being a swamp with floating vegetation that supports a rich biodiversity?
a) Bhitarkanika National Park
b) Keibul Lamjao National Park
c) Keoladeo Ghana National park
d) Sultanpur National park
Solution: b)

It is the only floating park in the world, located in Manipur, North East India, and an integral part of Loktak Lake.
The national park is characterized by many floating decomposed plant materials locally called phumdis.
The park is a swamp established by Mann Sharma with floating mass of vegetation (created by accrual of organic garbage and biomass with soil particles that has been thickened into a solid form called phumdis, at the south–eastern side of the Loktak Lake, which has been declared a Ramsar site. Two third’s to three fourth’s of the total park area is formed by phumdis.
Source: http://www.north-east-india.com/manipur/keibul-lamjao-national-park.html

 

 

Which one of the following is the best description of the term “ecosystem”?
a) A community of organisms interacting with one another
b) That part of the Earth which is inhabited by living organisms
c) A community of organisms together with the environment in which they live.
d) The flora and fauna of a geographical area.
Solution: c)

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the non-living components of their environment, interacting as a system. These biotic and abiotic components are regarded as linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows.
Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecosystem

 

 

With reference to an organization known as ‘Birdlife International’ which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. It is a Global Partnership of Conservation Organizations.
2. The concept of ‘biodiversity hotspots’ originated from this organization.
3. It identifies the sites known/referred to as ‘Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas’.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
a) 1 only
b) 2 and 3 only
c) 1 and 3 only
d) 1, 2 and 3
Solution: c)
BirdLife international is a global partnership of conservation organisations that strives to conserve birds, their habitats and global biodiversity, working with people towards sustainability in the use of natural resources. It is the World’s largest partnership of conservation organisations, with over 120 partner organizations 120 partner organizations. Together the BirdLife Partnership forms the leading authority on the status of birds, their habitats and the issues and problems affecting bird life.
BirdLife’s Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA) Programme aims to identify, monitor and protect a global network of IBAs for the conservation of the world’s birds and other wildlife.
Source: http://www.birdlife.org/worldwide/partnership/about-birdlife

 

 

With reference to ‘Forest Carbon Partnership Facility’, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. it is global partnership of governments, businesses, civil society and indigenous peoples
2. it provides financial aid to universities, individual scientists and institutions involved in
scientific forestry research to develop eco-friendly and climate adaptation technologies for sustainable forest management
3. It assists the countries in their ‘REDD+ (Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation+)’ efforts by providing them with financial and technical assistance.
Select the correct answer using the code given below
a) 1 only
b) 2 and 3 only
c) 1 and 3 only
d) 1, 2 and 3
Solution: c)

Option B was framed to deviate you from the right answer.
The facility has been formed under REDD+. Go to the link to read the four objectives of FCPF. This is implemented at country level, not al universities or individual levels.
Source: http://www.forestcarbonpartnership.org/about-us

 

 

 In a particular region in India, the local people train the roots of living tree into robust bridges across the streams. As the time passes these bridges become stronger. These unique ‘Living Root Bridges’ are found in
a) Meghalaya
b) Himachal Pradesh
c) Jharkhand
d) Tamil Nadu
Solution: a)

Meghalaya’s double-decker and single-decker root bridges are unique in the world and are a sight to behold. The bridges are tangles of massive thick roots, which have been intermingled to form a bridge that can hold several people at a time. Khasi people have been trained to grow these bridges across the raised banks of streams to form a solid bridge, made from roots. The living bridges are made from the roots of the Ficus elastic tree, which produces a series of secondary roots that are perched atop huge boulders along the streams or the riverbanks to form bridges.
The root bridges, some of which are over a hundred feet long, take ten to fifteen years to become fully functional, but they’re extraordinarily strong – strong enough that some of them can support the weight of fifty or more people at a time. The bridges are alive and still growing and gain strength over time.
Source: http://www.livingrootbridge.com/About-Living-Root-Bridge.php

 

 

The Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee is constituted under the
(a) Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006
(b) Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999
(c) Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
(d) Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972
Solution: c)

The Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC) is the apex body constituted in the Ministry of Environment and Forests under ‘Rules for Manufacture, Use, Import, Export and Storage of Hazardous Microorganisms/Genetically Engineered Organisms or Cells 1989’, under the Environment Protection Act, 1986.
It is the apex body to accord notified under Rules 1989, for approval of activities involving large scale use of hazardous microorganisms and recom¬binants in research and industrial production from the environ¬mental angle. The GEAC is also responsible for ap¬proval of proposals relating to release of genetically engineered organisms and products into the environment, including experimen¬tal field trials (Biosafety Research Level trial-I and II known as BRL-I and BRL-II).

 

 

6. ‘BioCarbon Fund Initiative for Sustainable Forest Landscapes’ is managed by the
(a) Asian Development Bank
(b) International Monetary Fund
(c) United Nations Environment Programme
(d) World Bank
Solution: d)

The BioCarbon Fund Initiative for Sustainable Forest Landscapes (ISFL) is a multilateral fund, supported by donor governments and managed by the World Bank. It seeks to promote reduced greenhouse gas emissions from the land sector, from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+), and from sustainable agriculture, as well as smarter land-use planning, policies and practices.
Sources: http://vlscop.vermontlaw.edu/2013/11/20/the-biocarbon-fund-initiative-for-sustainable-forest-landscapes-a-bold-step-forward/
http://biocarbonfund-isfl.org/about-us

 

2) Which one of the following National Parks has a climate that varies from tropical to subtropical, temperate and arctic?
a) Khangchendzonga National park
b) Nandadevi National Park
c) Neora Valley National Park
d) Namdapha National park

Solution: d)

2016

  1. In which of the following regions of India are you most likely to come across the `Great Indian Hornbill’ in its natural habitat?

(a) Sand deserts of northwest India

(b) Higher Himalayas of Jammu and Kashmir

(c) Salt marshes of western Gujarat

(d) Western Ghats

Solution: D

Justification: Great Hornbills are found in three separate areas in South Asia; in the Western Ghats, the Himalayan foothills in Uttaranchal to south Nepal and Bhutan, and north-east India.

They occur in primary evergreen and moist deciduous forest, mainly in lowland forest, but they can be found up to 2,000 meters in some areas.

All other options apart from D can thus be easily eliminated.

http://www.hornbills.in/great-hornbill.php

 


 

98) Which of the following are the key features of ‘National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA)?

  1. River basin is the unit of planning and management.
  2. It spearheads the river conservation efforts at the national level.
  3. One of the Chief Ministers of the States through which the Ganga flows becomes the Chairman of NGRBA on rotation basis.

Select the correct answer using the code given Below.

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: A

Justification: The statements 1 and 2 were picked verbatim from CPCB Website, we quote, “River basin will be the unit of planning and management. This is an internationally accepted strategy for integrated management of rivers.

Accordingly, a new institutional mechanism in the form of National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) will spearhead river conservation efforts at the national level. Implementation will be by the State Agencies and Urban Local Bodies”.

Statement 3: PM Chairs the NGRBA.

http://cpcb.nic.in/ngrba/about.html

 

 

88) What is/are the importance/importances of the ‘United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification’?

  1. It aims to promote effective action through innovative national programmes and supportive inter-national partnerships.
  2. It has a special/particular focus on South Asia and North Africa regions, and its Secretariat facilitates the allocation of major portion of  financial resources to these regions.
  3. It is committed to bottom-up approach, encouraging the participation of local people in combating the desertification.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: C

Statement 1 and 2: Please see the Q Source.

Statement 2: Though desertification affects Africa the most, where two-thirds of the continent is desert or drylands, it is not a problem confined to drylands in Africa. United States, Latin America and the Caribbean have a high percentage of degraded lands.

  • The problem is starker in developing countries (majority of population in drylands is living in these countries). So, the UNCCD secretariat facilitates south-south cooperation is addressing desertification.
  • We could not find any such provision that the UNCCD secretariat allocates majority of resources to the South Asian and North African regions, even though it focuses on these regions.

http://www.unccd.int/en/about-the-convention/Pages/About-the-Convention.aspx

http://www.unesco.org/mab/doc/ekocd/chapter14.html

http://www.unccd.int/en/resources/Library/Pages/FAQ.aspx

 

  1. The term ‘Intended Nationally Determined Contributions’ is sometimes seen in the news in the context of

(a) pledges made by the European countries to rehabilitate refugees from the war-affected Middle East

(b) plan of action outlined by the countries of the world to combat climate change

(c) capital contributed by the member countries in the establishment of Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank

(d) plan of action outlined by the countries of the world regarding Sustainable Development Goals

Solution: B

Justification: Straight-forward question.

http://unfccc.int/focus/indc_portal/items/8766.php

 

Consider the following statements:

  1. The Sustainable Development Goals were first proposed in 1972 by a global think tank called the ‘Club of Rome’.
  2. The Sustainable Development Goals have to be achieved by 2030.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: B

Justification: Statement 1: The first report of the Club of Rome was the famous “The limits to growth” thesis brought out in 1972.

  • While the report did talk about the need of reducing our consumption habits and sustainable development, it is hard to conclude that the SDGs were first proposed by them.
  • This is because SDGs are a comprehensive set of goals that include not only environmental conservation, but also reducing poverty, ensuring education, curbing malnutrition and hunger etc. So, we believe 1 should be wrong.

Statement 2: It is officially known as “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development”

http://donellameadows.org/archives/the-club-of-rome-and-sustainable-development/

 

2) With reference to the Agreement at the UNFCCC Meeting in Paris in 2015, which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. The Agreement was signed by all the member countries of the UN and it will go into effect in 2017.
  2. The Agreement aims to limit the greenhouse gas emissions so that the rise in average global temperature by the end of this century does not  exceed 2 °C or even 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels.
  3. Developed countries acknowledged their historical responsibility in global warming and committed to donate $ 1000 billion a year from 2020 to help developing countries to cope with climate change.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 3 only

(b) 2 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: B

Justification: Statement 1: It was only “agreed” by 195 nations in Paris at the conference. The agreement will enter into force only after 55 countries that account for at least 55% of global emissions have deposited their instruments of ratification. So, 1 is wrong.

Statement 3: Developed countries will work to define a clear roadmap on ratcheting up climate finance to USD 100 billion (not USD 1000 billion) by 2020. So, 3 is wrong.

The only answer can be option B.

http://newsroom.unfccc.int/unfccc-newsroom/finale-cop21

 

  1. Recently, for the first time in our country, which of the following States has declared a particular butterfly as ‘State Butterfly’?

(a) Arunachal Pradesh

(b) Himachal Pradesh

(c) Karnataka

(d) Maharashtra

Solution: D

Justification: http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/maharashtra-gets-state-butterfly/article7342955.ece

 

 

) In the cities of our country, which among the following atmospheric gases are normally considered in calculating the value of Air Quality Index?

  1. Carbon dioxide
  2. Carbon monoxide
  3. Nitrogen dioxide
  4. Sulfur dioxide
  5. Methane

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only

(b) 2, 3 and 4 only

(c) 1, 4 and 5 only

(d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Solution: B

Justification: Air Quality Index doesn’t include carbon dioxide and methane.

http://www.hindustantimes.com/india/modi-launches-air-quality-index-wants-change-in-lifestyle-to-save-environment/story-C8VHWyZWYe36La6PQ7v2eO.html

 

 

Consider the following statements:

  1. The International Solar Alliance was launched at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in 2015.
  2. The Alliance includes all the member countries of the United Nations.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: A

Justification: India and France have launched an International Solar Alliance at the UN Climate Change Conference in Paris to boost solar energy in developing countries. So, 1 is correct.

The alliance includes around 120 countries (not all UN members) that support the “Declaration on the occasion to launch the international solar alliance of countries dedicated to the promotion of solar energy”. So, 2 is wrong.

http://newsroom.unfccc.int/clean-energy/international-solar-energy-alliance-launched-at-cop21/

 

  1. ‘Gadgil Committee Report’ and ‘Kasturirangan Committee Report’, sometimes seen in the news, are related to

(a) constitutional reforms

(b) Ganga Action Plan

(c) linking of rivers

(d) protection of Western Ghats

Solution: D

Justification: Clear-cut answer.

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/environment/developmental-issues/Gadgil-committee-recommendations-on-Western-Ghats-ideal-practical-Experts/articleshow/41136674.cms

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements is/are correct?

Viruses can infect

  1. bacteria
  2. fungi
  3. plants

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: D

Justification: Viruses are known to infect almost any kind of host that has living cells. Animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria are all subject to viral infection.

A bacteriophage is a virus that infects and replicates within a bacterium. Mycoviruses are viruses that infect fungi. A host of other Viruses affect pla

 

32) With reference to ‘Agenda 21’, sometimes seen in the news, consider the following statements :

  1. It is a global action plan for sustainable development
  2. It originated in the World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg in 2002.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: A

Justification: Agenda 21 is a non-binding, voluntarily implemented action plan of the United Nations with regard to sustainable development.

It is a product of the Earth Summit (UN Conference on Environment and Development) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992.

https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/outcomedocuments/agenda21

 

  1. What is ‘Greenhouse Gas Protocol’?

(a) It is an international accounting tool for government and business leaders to understand, quantify and manage greenhouse gas emissions

(b) It is an initiative of the United Nations to offer financial incentives to developing countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adopt eco-friendly technologies

(c) It is an inter-governmental agreement ratified by all the member countries of the United Nations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to specified levels by the year 2022

(d) It is one of the multilateral REDD+ initiatives hosted by the World Bank

Solution: A

Justification: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol) is the most widely used international accounting tool for government and business leaders to understand, quantify, and manage greenhouse gas emissions.

  • It is a decade-long partnership between the World Resources Institute (WRI) and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD).
  • It is working with businesses, governments, and environmental groups around the world to build a new generation of credible and effective programs for tackling climate change.

http://www.ghgprotocol.org/about-ghgp

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements is/are correct?

Proper design and effective implementation of UN-REDD+ Programme can significantly contribute to

  1. protection of biodiversity
  2. resilience of forest ecosystems
  3. poverty reduction

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: D

Justification: Statement 3 was debatable, but we are posting verbatim from the source below,

“The UN-REDD Programme has identified the following three topics for supporting national REDD+ governance structures, with an overarching principle of stakeholder participation

  • Country-led multi-stakeholder governance assessments that contribute to the development and implementation of national REDD+ strategies (for tackling forest degradation and biodiversity loss) and nationally owned monitoring frameworks
  • Social standards, including poverty and gender
  • Land and/or carbon tenure and the role of REDD+ within national land use strategies

 

 

 

27) With reference to an initiative called ‘The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB)’, which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. It is an initiative hosted by UNEP, IMF and World Economic Forum.
  2. It is a global initiative that focuses on drawing attention to the economic benefits of biodiversity.
  3. It presents an approach that can help decision-makers recognize,   demonstrate and capture the value of ecosystems and   biodiversity.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: C

Justification: Statement 1: The founding of TEER is actually a bit elaborate. It started from the G8+5 environment ministers since 2007. You can read more about it in the source given below.

The TEEB office is hosted by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

Statement 2 and 3: Lifted nearly verbatim from the source below.

 

 

 

  1. Recently, our scientists have discovered a new and distinct species of banana plant which attains a height of about 11 metres and has orange-coloured fruit pulp. In which part of India has it been discovered?

(a) Andaman Islands

(b) Anaimalai Forests

(c) Maikala Hills

(d) Tropical rain forests of northeast

Solution: A

Justification: Musa indandamanensis, a sweet species of banana with orange pulp, has been discovered in the islands of Andamans.

The banana species was found by a team of scientists from the Botanical Survey of India (BSI) from the Krishna Nalah tropical rain forest on the islands.

It has also been reported by the scientists that the discovered species is thrice the size of a regular banana species

 

 

9) What is/are unique about ‘Kharai Camel’, a breed found in India?

  1. It is capable of swimming up to three kilometres in seawater.
  2. It survives by grazing on mangroves.
  3. It lives in the wild and cannot be domesticated.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: A

Justification: Statement 1 and 2: It can swim up to three kilometers into the sea in search of mangroves, its primary food.

The breed population has declined drastically in recent years due to loss of mangroves.

Statement 3: Given the breed’s ability to survive both on land and sea, the Kharai camel is one of the most preferred choices of graziers in the arid coastal region of Kachchh.

People consume its milk, while male calves are sold for economic returns (females are not sold because they are considered sacred). So, clearly they are domesticated and don’t live in the wild. Statement 3 is wrong.

Gujarat is the only home to Kharai camel.

 

 

 

8) Which of the following best describes/ describe the aim of ‘Green India Mission’ of the Government of India?

  1. Incorporating environmental benefits and costs into the Union and State Budgets thereby implementing the `green accounting’
  2. Launching the second green revolution to enhance agricultural output so as to ensure food security to one and all in the future
  3. Restoring and enhancing forest cover and responding to climate change by a combination of adaptation and mitigation measures

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: C

Justification: The mission intends to increase forest/tree cover; improve/enhance eco-system services and to increase forest based livelihood income of about 3 million households. So, rest other statements (other than 3) are thus wrong.


2017


 

In the context of mitigating the impending global warming due to anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide, which of the following can be potential sites for carbon sequestration?

  1. Abandoned and uneconomic coal seams
  2. Depleted oil and gas reservoirs
  3. Subterranean deep saline formations

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a)1 and 2 only

(b)3 only

(c)1 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:D

It is possible to produce algae based biofuels, but what is/are the likely limitation(s) of developing countries in promoting this industry?

 

  1. Production of algae based biofuels is possible in seas only and not on continents.
  2. Setting up and engineering the algae based biofuels production requires high level of expertise/ technology until the construction is complete.
  3. Economically viable production necessitates the setting up of large scale facilities which may raise ecological and social concerns.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a)1 and 2 only

(b)2 and 3 only

(c)3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:B

Statement 1 is incorrect. Production of algal biofuel is possible both in seas and on continents. They can grow on marginal or non-crop land and also on brackish or polluted water. Land based systems are more developed then sea based systems.

 

Statements 2 and 3 are correct. Developing and engineering ABB technology requires a high level of expertise until construction is finished. Innovation for higher productivity also requires some knowledge and/or experience. All Algal based biofuel concepts require significant capital investment. Access to this technology by the poor may be difficult. Large-scale facilities are more economically viable, but are also more likely to have higher social and ecological impacts.

 

 

Due to some reasons, if there is a huge fall in the population of species of butterflies, what could be its likely consequence/consequences?

 

  1. Pollination of some plants could be adversely affected.
  2. There could be a drastic increase in the fungal infections of some cultivated plants.
  3. It could lead to a fall in the population of some species of wasps, spiders and birds.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a)1 only

(b)2 and 3 only

(c)1 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:C

Statement 1 and 3 are correct. Butterflies are pollinating insects. They help in pollination of many flowering plants.

 

Butterflies also act as a lower member of the food chain. A number of animals, including birds and mice feed on butterfly. As populations of butterfly diminish, so will populations of birds and other animals that rely on them as a food source. This loss of the butterfly is the beginning of the “butterfly effect.”

Statement 2 is not correct.

 

 

Consider the following statements in respect of Trade Related Analysis of Fauna and Flora in Commerce (TRAFFIC):

 

  1. TRAFFIC is a bureau under United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
  2. The mission of TRAFFIC is to ensure that trade in wild plants and animals is not a threat to the conservation of nature.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a)1 only

(b)2 only

(c)Both 1 and 2

(d)Neither 1 nor 2

ANS:B

TRAFFIC, the wildlife trade monitoring network, is the leading non-governmental organization working globally on trade in wild animals and plants in the context of both biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. TRAFFIC was established in 1976 by IUCN and WWF to respond to the growing threats posed by illegal wildlife trade and overexploitation. It is not a bureau under UNEP.

 

 

From the ecological point of view, which one of the following assumes importance in being a good link between the Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats?

 

(a)Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve

(b)Nallamala Forest

(c)Nagarhole National Park

(d)Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve

ANS:A

Sathyamangalam forest range is a significant wildlife corridor in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve between the Western Ghats and the rest of the Eastern Ghats Located in the Erode district of Tamil Nadu, the Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve is the largest wildlife sanctuary in the state. With a forest area of 1,411.6 square kilometres, the reserve is a part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve and lies between the Western Ghats and the rest of the Eastern Ghats. Situated in a key position between the Western and Eastern Ghats, the Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve boasts of a wide variety of fauna.

 

The reserve also adjoins four other protected areas — Billigiriranga Swamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary, Sigur Plateau, Mudumalai National Park and Bandipur National Park.

 

 

According to the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, which of the following animals cannot be hunted by any person except under some provisions provided by law?

  1. Gharial
  2. Indian wild ass
  3. Wild buffalo

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a)1 only

(b)2 and 3 only

(c)1 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:D

Gharial (Gravialis gangeticus), Indian Wild Ass (Equus hemionus khur) and Wild Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) are all mentioned under Schedule I for the Wildlife(Protection) Act, 1972

 

 

Recently there was a proposal to translocate some of the lions from their habitat in Gujarat to which one of the following sites?

 

(a)Corbett National Park

(b)Kuno Palpur Wildlife Sanctuary

(c)Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary

(d)Sariska National Park

ANS:B

An environment ministry’s expert committee approved Kuno Palpur in Madhya Pradesh as the second home for Asiatic lions found only in Gir national park. However, the Gujarat government will not share lions unless 33 studies as mandated by international wildlife watchdog IUCN is completed.

 

In India, if a species of tortoise is declared protected under Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, what does it imply?

 

(a)It enjoys the same level of protection as the tiger.

(b)It no longer exists in the wild, a few individuals are under captive protection; and not it is impossible to prevent its extinction.

(c)It is endemic to a particular region of India.

(d)Both (b) and (c) stated above are correct in this context.

ANS:A

The Act provides for the protection of wild animals, birds and plants; and for matters connected therewith or ancillary or incidental thereto. It extends to the whole of India, except the State of Jammu and Kashmir which has its own wildlife act. It has six schedules which give varying degrees of protection. Schedule I and part II of Schedule II provide absolute protection – offences under these are prescribed the highest penalties. Species listed in Schedule III and Schedule IV are also protected, but the penalties are much lower. Schedule V includes the animals which may be hunted.

 

 

The term ‘M-STrIPES’ is sometimes seen in the news in the context of

 

(a)Captive breeding of Wild Fauna

(b)Maintenance of Tiger Reserves

(c)Indigenous Satellite Navigation System

(d)Security of National Highways

ANS:B

Consider the following pairs:

 

Commonly used/consumed materials Unwanted or controversial chemicals likely to be found in them
 1 Lipstick : Lead
 2 Soft drinks : Brominated vegetable oils
 3 Chinese fast food : Monosodium glutamate

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

(a)1 only

(b)2 and 3 only

(c)1 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:D

Lead is a common impurity found in cosmetic lip products, such as lipsticks, and other cosmetics, such as eye shadows, blushes, compact powders, shampoos, and body lotions. Brominated vegetable oil is a food additive sometimes used to keep citrus flavoring from separating out in some sodas and soft drinks. It’s banned as a food additive in Europe and Japan. MSG, is a glutamate, or salt of glutamic acid, a “non-essential” amino acid. It is a neurotransmitter – transporting messages from one nerve cell to another. Because it is said to enhance flavours, some scientists believe it “excites nerve endings” and exhibits “neuro-excitatory properties”, that is the ability to stimulate neurons. It is commonly used in chinese fast food.

 

If you want to see gharials in their natural habitat, which one of the following is the best place to visit?

 

(a)Bhitarkanika Mangroves

(b)Chambal River

(c)Pulicat Lake

(d)Deepor Beel

ANS:B

National Chambal Sanctuary, also called the National Chambal Gharial Wildlife Sanctuary is a tri-state protected area in northern India for the critically endangered gharial (small crocodiles), the red-crowned roof turtle and the endangered Ganges river dolphin.

 

With reference to ‘Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)’ sometimes mentioned in the news while forecasting Indian monsoon, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. IOD phenomenon is characterised by a difference in sea surface temperature between tropical Western Indian Ocean and tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean.

2. An IOD phenomenon can influence an El Nino’s impact on the monsoon.

Select the correct answer using the code giaven below:

(a)1 only

(b)2 only

(c)Both 1 and 2

(d)Neither 1 nor 2

ANS:B

Statement 1 is not correct: The Indian Ocean Dipole is an irregular oscillation of sea-surface temperatures in which the western Indian Ocean becomes alternately warmer and then colder than the eastern part of the ocean. Statement 2 is correct: an IOD can either aggravate or weaken the impact of El Nino on Indian monsoon. If there is a positive IOD, it can bring good rains to India despite of an El Nino year.

 

Consider the following statements:

 

1. Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) to Reduce Short Lived Climate Pollutants is a unique initiative of G2O group of countries.
2. The CCAC focuses on methane, black carbon and hydrofluorocarbons.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 only

(b)2 only

(c)Both 1 and 2

(d)Neither 1 nor 2

ANS:B

he Climate & Clean Air Coalition is the only global effort that unites governments, civil society and private sector, committed to improving air quality and protecting the climate in next few decades by reducing short-lived climate pollutants across sectors. The Coalition’s initial focus is on methane, black carbon, and HFCs. The governments of Bangladesh, Canada, Ghana, Mexico, Sweden and the United States, along with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), came together to initiate the first effort to treat these pollutants as a collective challenge. The coalition has 53 country partners and 17 International Governmental Organizations and 45 Non governmental organization partners. India is not a partner country however The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI ) is a partner NGO since 2015.

 

With reference to the role of UN-Habitat in the United Nations Programme working towards a better urban future, which of the statements is/are correct?

 

1. UN-Habitat has been mandated by the United Nations General Assembly to promote socially and environmentally sustainable towns and cities to provide adequate shelter for all.
2. Its partners are either governments or local urban authorities only.
3. UN-Habitat contributed to the overall objective of the United Nations system to reduce poverty and to promote access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a)1, 2 and 3

(b)1 and 3 only

(c)2 and 3 only

(d)1 only

ANS:B

Statement 1 is correct:

UN-Habitat is the United Nations programme working towards a better urban future. Its mission is to promote socially and environmentally sustainable human settlements development and the achievement of adequate shelter for all. Statement 1 is correct.

Statement 2 is not correct:

Its partners with a range of organizations in its endevaour. For example, governments, local authorities, NGOs, Trade unions, professionals, Academics and Researchers, Human Solidarity Groups, Indigenous People, Private Sector, Foundations, Financial Institutions.

Statement 3 is correct:

In the absence of effective urban planning, the consequences of this rapid urbanization can lead to lack of proper housing and growth of slums, inadequate and out-dated infrastructure – be it roads, public transport, water, sanitation, or electricity – escalating poverty and unemployment, safety and crime problems, pollution and health issues. UN-Habitat contributes to the overall objective of a sustainable urbanization.

 

Q.Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) is a standard criterion for

(a)Measuring oxygen levels in blood

(b)Computing oxygen levels in forest ecosystems

(c)Pollution assay in aquatic ecosystems

(d)Assessing oxygen levels in high altitude regions

ANS:C

Biological oxygen demand (BOD) is the amount of dissolved oxygen needed (i. e., demanded) by aerobic micro organisms to break down organic material present in a given water sample. A highly polluted water will have a high levels of biological oxygen demand (BOD).

 

With reference to ‘Global Climate Change Alliance’, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. It is an initiative of the European Union.

2. It provides technical and financial support to targeted developing countries to integrate climate change into their development policies and budgets.

3. It is coordinated by World Resources Institute (WRI) and World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD).

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a)1 and 2 only

(b)3 only

(c)2 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:A

The Global Climate Change Alliance (GCCA) was established by the European Union (EU) in 2007 to strengthen dialogue and cooperation with developing countries, in particular least developed countries (LDCs) and small island developing States (SIDS).

Under the first pillar, the GCCA+ serves as a platform for dialogue and exchange of experience between the EU and developing countries, focusing on climate policy and bringing renewed attention to the issue of international climate finance.

Under the second pillar, the GCCA+ acts as a source of technical and financial support for the world’s most climate-vulnerable countries, whose populations need climate finance the most.

International organisations – notably the Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), the United Nations Capital Development Fund (UNCDF), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), UN Habitat and the World Bank – are involved in the implementation of some GCCA-funded interventions, and also co-finance some initiatives.

Statement 3 is not correct: Through the Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHGP) World Resources Institute (WRI) and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) work with businesses to develop standards and tools that help companies measure, manage, report and reduce their carbon emissions.

 


2018


Consider the following statements:

 

  1. The definition of “Critical Wildlife Habitat” is incorporated in the Forest Rights Act, 2006.
  2. For the first time in India, Baigas have been given Habitat Rights.
  3. Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change officially decides and declares Habitat Rights for Primitive and Vulnerable Tribal Groups in any part of India.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 and 2 only

(b)2 and 3 only

(c)3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:A

  • Statement 1 is correct: The phrase ‘critical wildlife habitat’ is defined only in the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006.
  • Statement 2 is correct: In a bid to undo historical injustice meted out to primitive tribal communities living in central India, the government of Madhya Pradesh, for the first time, recognised the habitat rights of seven villages in Dindori district, mostly inhabited by the Baigas.
  • Statement 3 is not correct: Under the act the District Level Committee shall ensure that all Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups receive habitat rights, in consultation with the concerned traditional institutions of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups and their claims for habitat rights are filed before the concerned Gram Sabhas.

In which one of the following States is Pakhui Wildlife Sanctuary located?

 

(a)Arunachal Pradesh

(b)Manipur

(c)Meghalaya

(d)Nagaland

ANS:A

  • Pakhui is a Wildlife Sanctuary and a dedicated Tiger Reserve (also known as the Pakke Tiger Reserve) in the district of East Kameng in Arunachal Pradesh, India. It has an area of over 860 square kilometres and is bordered by the Kameng River and Pakke River, which are important sources of water for the animals and the irrigation of the vegetation. The Pakhui reserve is neighbour to the Nameri Tiger reserve in Assam, making this area a true treasure trove in terms of these spectacular animals.
  • This area was first declared the Pakke Reserve Forest in July of 1966. Eleven years later, it was named the Camo Sanctuary. Then, in 2002, it was formally christened Pakhui Wildlife Sanctuary and Pakke Tiger Reserve.

“Momentum for Change: Climate Neutral Now” is an initiative launched by

 

(a)The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

(b)The UNEP Secretariat

(c)The UNFCCC Secretariat

(d)The World Meteorological Organization

ANS:C

The UNFCCC secretariat launched its Climate Neutral Now initiative in 2015. The following year, the secretariat launched a new pillar under its Momentum for Change initiative focused on Climate Neutral Now, as part of larger efforts to showcase successful climate action around the world

Consider the following statements:

 

  1. Most of the world’s coral reefs are in tropical waters.
  2. More than one-third of the world’s coral reefs are located in the territories of Australia, Indonesia and Philippines.
  3. Coral reefs host far more number of animal phyla than those hosted by tropical rainforests.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 and 2 only

(b)3 only

(c)1 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:D

Why is a plant called Prosopis juliflora often mentioned in news?

 

(a)Its extract is widely used in cosmetics.

(b)It tends to reduce the biodiversity in the area in which it grows.

(c)Its extract is used in the synthesis of pesticides.

(d)None of these

ANS:B

Prosopis juliflora (P juliflora), an exotic tree, is one of the top invaders in India. A native of South and Central America, it was introduced in India to meet the fuel and wood requirement of the rural poor and to restore degraded lands. A recent study has shown that apart from threatening local plants, with whom it competes for resources, this tree is also affecting the nesting success of birds.

Which one of the following is an artificial lake?

 

(a)Kodaikanal (Tamil Nadu)

(b)Kolleru (Andhra Pradesh)

(c)Nainital (Uttarakhand)

(d)Renuka (Himachal Pradesh)

ANS:A

Which of the following statements best describes “carbon fertilization”?

 

(a)Increased plant growth due to increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

(b)Increased temperature of Earth due to increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

(c)Increased acidity of oceans as a result of increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

(d)Adaptation of all living beings on Earth to the climate change brought about by the increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

ANS:The carbon fertilization effect (CFE) is in principle simple: the larger amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that has resulted from rising anthropogenic emissions should help the growth of plants, which use carbon dioxide during photosynthesis. The effect ought to increase crop yields.

With reference to the ‘Global Alliance for Climate-Smart Agriculture (GACSA)’, which of the following statements is/are correct?

 

  1. GACSA is an outcome of the Climate Summit help in Paris in 2015.
  2. Membership of GACSA does not create any binding obligations.
  3. India was instrumental in the creation of GACSA.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a)1 and 3 only

(b)2 only

(c)2 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:B

 

  • The term Climate-Smart Agriculture was first coined by FAO in 2010 as a means to attract climate finance to its agricultural programmes in Africa. GACSA is an inclusive, voluntary and action-oriented multi-stakeholder platform on Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA). GACSA was launched in September 2014 in the margins of the UN Climate Summit. The Alliance held its inaugural Annual Forum in December 2014, during which the 2015 Inception Year Work Plan was endorsed.
  • The concept of Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) was originally developed by FAO and officially presented and at the Hague Conference on Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change in 2010, through the paper “Climate-Smart Agriculture: Policies, Practices and Financing for Food Security, Adaptation and Mitigation”. They have been established based on bottom-up, inclusive, independent and voluntary processes, with specific objectives, functioning and institutional setting.
  • The emergence of CSA alliances and platforms worldwide is a positive and strong signal to the international community on the willingness of all stakeholders, at various levels of action, to tackle the climate challenges in the agricultural sectors, based on joint efforts and context-specific approaches.
  • The GACSA alliance is made up of a diverse set of members that includes governments, NGOs, intergovernmental organizations (including UN and the African Union Commission), research/extension/education organizations, farmer organizations, financing institutions and the private sector. Key donor organisations engaging with GACSA include the governments of Canada, France, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Though some of the Indian NGOs are its member but there are not enough evidences of India being instrumental in creation of GACSA.

How is the National Green Tribunal (NGT) different from the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)?

 

  1. The NGT has been established by an Act whereas the CPCB has been created by an executive order of the Government.
  2. The NGT provides environmental justice and helps reduce the burden of litigation in the higher courts whereas the CPCB promotes cleanliness of streams and wells, and aims to improve the quality of air in the country.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 only

(b)2 only

(c)Both 1 and 2

(d)Neither 1 nor 2

ANS:B


2019


With reference to the management of minor minerals in India, consider the following statements:

1.      Sand is a ‘minor mineral’ according to the prevailing law in the country.

2.      State Governments have the power to grant mining leases of minor minerals, but the powers regarding the formation of rules related to the grant of minor minerals lie with the Central Government.

3.      State Government have the power to frame rules to prevent illegal mining of minor minerals.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 and 3 only

(b)2 and 3 only

(c)3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:A

 

Consider the following statements:

The Environment Protection Act, 1986 empowers the Government of India to

1.      state the requirement of public participation in the process of environmental protection, and the procedure and manner in which it is sought

2.      lay down the standards for emission or discharge of environmental pollutants from various sources

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 only

(b)2 only

(c)Both 1 and 2

(d)Neither 1 nor 2

ANS:B

 

In India, ‘extended producer responsibility’ was introduced as an important feature in which of the following?

(a)The Bio-medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998

(b)The Recycled Plastic (Manufacturing and Usage) Rules, 1999

(c)The e-Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2011

(d)The Food Safety and Standard Regulations, 2011

ANS:C

 

As per the Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016 in India, which one of the following statements is correct?

(a)Waste generator has to segregate waste five categories.

(b)The Rules are applicable to notified urban local bodies, notified towns and all industrial townships only.

(c)The Rules provide for exact and elaborate criteria for the identification of sites for landfills and waste processing facilities.

(d)It is mandatory the part of waste generator that the waste generated in one district cannot be moved to another district.

ANS:C

 

Consider the following statements:

1.      Asiatic lion is naturally found in India only.

2.      Double-humped camel is naturally found in India only.

3.      One-horned rhinoceros is naturally found in India only.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 only

(b)2 only

(c)1 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:A

 

In a given year in India, official poverty lines are higher in some States than in others because

(a)poverty rates vary from State to State

(b)price levels vary from State to State

(c)Gross State Product varies from State to State

(d)quality of public distribution varies from State to State

ANS:B

 

In the context of which of the following do some scientists suggest the used of cirrus cloud thinning technique and the injection of sulphate aerosol into stratosphere?

(a)Creating the artificial rains in some regions

(b)Reducing the frequency and intensity of tropical cyclones

(c)Reducing the adverse effects of solar wind on the Earth

(d)Reducing the global warming

ANS:D

 

In the context of which one of the following are the terms ‘pyrolysis and plasma gasification’ mentioned?

(a)Extraction of rare earth elements

(b)Natural gas extraction technologies

(c)Hydrogen fuel-based automobiles

(d)Waste-to-energy technologies

ANS:D

 

Which of the following are in Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve?

(a)Neyyar, Peppara and Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuaries; and Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve

(b)Mudumalai, Sathyamangalam and Wayanand Wildlife Sanctuaries; and Silent Valley National Park

(c)Kaundinya, Gundla Brahmeswaram and Papikonda Wildlife Sanctuaries; and Mukurthi National Park

(d)Kawal and Sri Venkateswara Wildlife Sanctuaries; and Nagarjunasagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve

ANS:A

 

Consider the following statements:

1.      Some species of turtles are herbivores.

2.      Some species of fish are herbivores.

3.      Some species of marine mammals are herbivores.

4.      Some species of snakes are viviparous.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

(a)1 and 3 only

(b)2, 3 and 4 only

(c)2 and 4 only

(d)1, 2, 3 and 4

ANS:D

 

Consider the following pairs:

Wildlife Naturally found in
1. Blue-finned Mahseer : Cauvery River
2. Irrawaddy Dolphin : Chambal River
3. Rusty-spotted Cat : Eastern Ghats

Which of the pairs given above are correctly

(a)1 and 2 only

(b)2 and 3 only

(c)1 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:c

 

 

Why is there a great concern about the ‘microbeads’ that are released into environment?

(a)They are considered harmful to marine ecosystems.

(b)They are considered to cause skin cancer in children.

(c)They are small enough to be absorbed by crop plants in irrigated fields.

(d)They are often found to be used as food adulterants.

ANS:A

 

Which one of the following National Parks lies completely in the temperate alpine

(a)Manas National Park

(b)Namdahpa National Park

(c)Neora Valley National Park

(d)Valley of Flowers National Park

ANS:D

 

Consider the following statements:

1.      Agricultural soils release nitrogen oxides into environment.

2.      Cattle release ammonia into environment.

3.      Poultry industry releases reactive nitrogen compounds into environment.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 and 3 only

(b)2 and 3 only

(c)2 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:D

 

What is common to the places known as Aliyar, Isapur and Kangsabati?

(a)Recently discovered uranium deposits

(b)Tropical rain forests

(c)Underground cave systems

(d)Water reservoirs

ANS:D

 

In the context of proposals to the use of hydrogen-enriched CNG (H-CNG) as fuel for buses in public transport, consider the following statements:

1.      The main advantage of the use of H-CNG is the elimination of carbon monoxide emissions.

2.      H-CNG as fuel reduces carbon dioxide and hydrocarbon emissions.

3.      Hydrogen up to one-fifth by volume can be blended with CNG as fuel for buses.

4.      H-CNG makes the fuel less expensive than CNG.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 only

(b)2 and 3 only

(c)4 only

(d)1, 2, 3 and 4

ANS:B

 

Recently, there was a growing awareness in our country about the importance of Himalayan nettle (Girardinia diversifolia) because it is found to be a sustainable source of

(a)anti-malarial drug

(b)biodiesel

(c)pulp for paper industry

(d)textile fibre.

ANS:D

 

Which of the following statements are correct about the deposits of ‘methane hydrate?

1.      Global warming might trigger the release of methane gas from these deposits.

2.      Large deposits of ‘methane hydrate’ are found in Arctic Tundra and under the seafloor.

3.      Methane in atmosphere oxidizes to carbon dioxide after decade or two.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a)1 and 2 only

(b)2 and 3 only

(c)1 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS: D

 

Consider the following:

1. Carbon monoxide

2. Methane

3. Ozone

4. Sulphur dioxide

Which of the above are released into atmosphere due to the burning of crop/biomass residue?

(a)1 and 2 only

(b)2, 3 and 4 only

(c)1 and 4 only

(d)1, 2, 3 and 4

ANS: D

 

 


2020


Q55. With reference to India’s Desert National Park, which of the following statements are correct?

1. It is spread over two districts.

2. There is no human habitation inside the Park.

3. It is one of the natural habitats of Great Indian Bustard.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: C

S1: Situated in Jaisalmer and Barmer districts of Indian state Rajasthan.

S2: This is clearly incorrect. A national park can have human habitation.

S3: This is common knowledge.

 

 

Q58. Consider the following statements:

1. 36% of India’s districts are classified as “overexploited” or “critical” by the Central Ground Water Authority(CGWA).

2. CGWA was formed under the Environment (Protection) Act.

3. India has the largest area under groundwater irrigation in the world.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 2 only

(d) 1 and 3 only

Answer: B

S1: About 29% are such, not 26%. Out of the 5723 assessment units assessed jointly by State Ground Water Departments and CGWB in the country, 4078 are safe (71%), 550 are semi critical (10%), 226 are critical (4%) and 839 are over exploited (15%). See https://niti.gov.in/planningcommission.gov.in/docs/reports/genrep/rep_grndwat.pdf

S2: Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA) constituted under Section 3(3) of ‘The Environment (Protection) Act, (1986)’ regulates extraction of ground water through guidelines which are updated regularly.

S3: At 39 million hectares (67% of its total irrigation), India has the world’s largest groundwater well equipped irrigation system (China with 19 mha is second, USA with 17 mha is third).

 

 

Q60. Among the following Tiger Reserves, which one has the largest area under “Critical Tiger Habitat” ?

(a) Corbett

(b) Ranthambore

(c) Nagarjunasagar- Srisailam

(d) Sunderbans

Answer: C

It is the largest tiger reserve forest in India and a critical tiger habitat. See https://etelangana.org/uploads/ebooks/Telangana_Article__2014-04-02_051708/2014-04-08_065702_Chenchu_Tiger_reserve.pdf

 

Q61. If a particular plant species is placed under Schedule VI of the Wildlife Protection Act,1972, what is the implication?

(a) A licence is required to cultivate that plant.

(b) Such a plant cannot be cultivated under any circumstances.

(c) It is a Genetically Modified crop plant.

(d) Such a plant is invasive and harmful to the ecosystem.

Answer: A

These are Endemic plants where Cultivation of specified plants without licence is prohibited.

From the Wildlife protection Act: (1) No person shall cultivate a specified plant except under and in accordance with a licence granted by the Chief Wild Life Warden or any other officer authorised by the State Government in this behalf: Provided that nothing in this section shall prevent a person, who immediately before the commencement of the Wild Life (Protection) (Amendment) Act, 1991 (44 of 1991), was cultivating a specified plant from carrying on such cultivation for a period of six months from such commencement or where he has made an application within that period for the grant of a licence to him, until the licence is granted to him or he is informed in writing that a licence cannot be granted to him.

Q65. Which one of the following statements best describes the term ‘Social Cost of Carbon’?
It is a measure, in monetary value, of the

(a) long-term damage done by a tonne of COemissions in a given year.

(b) requirement of fossil fuels for a country to provide goods and services to its citizens, based on the burning of those fuels.

(c)efforts put in by a climate refugee to adapt to live in a new place.

(d) contribution of an individual person to the carbon footprint on the planet Earth.

Answer: A

The social cost of carbon (SCC) is the marginal cost of the impacts caused by emitting one extra tonne of greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide equivalent) at any point in time, inclusive of ‘non-market’ impacts on the environment and human health. The purpose of putting a price on a ton of emitted CO2 is to aid policymakers or other legislators in evaluating whether a policy designed to curb climate change is justified.

Q92. With reference to Indian Elephants, consider the following statements :

1. The leader of an elephant group is a female.
2. The maximum gestation period can be 22 months.
3. An elephant can normally go on calving till the age of 40 years only.
4. Among the States in India, the highest population is in Kerala.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a) 1and 2 only

(b) 2 and 4 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1,3 and 4 only.

Answer: A

S1: The leader of a group is the oldest female. She guides the herd in their search of food and water sources. These matriarchal units can occasionally divide into smaller, temporary groups.

S2: A breeding pair remains together for about 3 weeks. Gestation period lasts for 22 months, yielding a single baby. During the birth, females of the herd surround the mother in order to protect her.

S3: Adulthood starts at about 18 years of age, and the elephant has an average life expectancy of 70 years. Although sexually mature in their early teens, elephants generally only start to mate at about 20 years and stop bearing calves at about 50

S4: South India had the highest number of wild elephants – 14,612. Among the south Indian states, Karnataka leads the table with 6,049 elephants followed by Kerala.

https://www.newindianexpress.com/states/kerala/2019/aug/05/survey-marginal-decline-seen–in-keralas-wild-elephant-population-2014187.html

 

 

Q93. Which of the following Protected areas are located in Cauvery basin?

1. Nagarhole National Park.
2. Papikonda National Park.
3. Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve
4. Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 and 4 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1,2,3 and 4

Answer: C

All except 2 are a part of Cauvery basin. Papikonda remains entirely inside the East and West Godavari districts near Godavari basin after 2014 and after the construction of Polavaram Dam.

 

 

Q94. With reference to India’s Biodiversity, Ceylon frogmouth, Coppersmith barbet, Gray-chinned minivet and White-throated redstart are

(a) Birds

(b) Primates

(c) Reptiles

(d) Amphibians

Answer: A

Straightforward

 

 

Q95. Which one of the following protected areas is well known for the conservation of a sub-species of the Indian swamp deer (Barasingha) that thrives well on hard ground and is exclusively graminivorous?

(a) Kanha National Park

(b) Manas National Park

(c) Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary

(d) Tal Chhapar Wildlife Sanctuary

Answer: A

Barasingha is the one of the rarest species of deer family spread across central and northern India only in small congregations. The deer is native to India and Nepal. Barasingha are also known as swamp deer due to their nature to survive close to river valleys or swampy regions. Kanha National Park is located in Madhya Pradesh and a renowned place for tigers. But the park’s major achievement is to save nearly extinct barasingha (swamps deers). It was a landmark achievement by preserve the highly endangered barasingha. Once it only 66 of these in Kanha, but careful BarahsIngha conservation and management raised their population to over 500.

Q96. Steel slag can be the material for which of the following?

  1. Construction of base road
  2. Improvement of agriculture soil
  3. Production of cement

Select the correct answer using the given code below

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: D

Straightforward from NCERT.

As for S2: Slag-based fertilizers applied in Si-deficient paddy soil has shown to improve rice growth, productivity, and brown spot resistance. The application of steel slag in the soil increases the concentration of Si in the rice straw and promotes a higher yield of grains.

 

 

Q97.  Which of the following are the most likely places to find the musk deer in its natural habitat?

  1. Askot Wildlife Sanctuary
  2. Gangotri national Park
  3. Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary
  4. Manas national Park

Select the correct answer using the given code below

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 3 and 4 only

(d) 1 and 4 only

Answer: A

S1: Askot Musk Deer Sanctuary is located 54 km from Pithoragarh near the town of Askot in Uttarakhand. As the name suggests, the sanctuary has been set up primarily for the conservation of musk deer and its natural habitat.

S2: Various rare and endangered species like bharal or blue sheep, black bear, brown bear, Himalayan Monal, Himalayan Snowcock, Himalayan Thar, musk deer and Snow leopard are found in the park.

S3 and S4: Musk deer are largely distributed in the Himalayan high altitude belts, so Manas and Kishanpur can be discounted.

 

 

Q98. In rural road construction, the use of which of the following is preferred for ensuring environmental sustainability or to reduce carbon footprint?

  1. Copper slag
  2. Cold mix asphalt technology
  3. Geotextiles
  4. Hot mix asphalt technology
  5. Portland cement

Select the correct answer using the given code below

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only

(b) 2, 3 and 4 only

(c) 4 and 5 only

(d) 1 and 5 only

Answer: A

S5 is wrong since Portland cement is a major CO2 emitter. Same goes for asphalt mix. Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) is a combination of approximately 95% stone, sand, or gravel bound together by asphalt cement, a product of crude oil. So, S4 is incorrect as well.

S1, S2 and S3 are correct.

 

 

Q99. Consider the following statements

  1. Coal ash contains arsenic, lead and mercury.
  2. Coal fired power plants release sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen into the environment.
  3. High ash content is observed in Indian Coal.

Which of the above given statements is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: D

Straightforward question and is often repeated in UPSC prelims in different styles.

 

 

Q8. Which of the following are the reasons/factors for exposure to benzene pollution?

  1. Automobile exhaust
  2. Tobacco smoke
  3. Wood burning
  4. Using varnished wooden furniture
  5. Using products made of polyurethane

Select the correct answer using the given code below-

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only

(b) 2 and 4 only

(c) 1, 3 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 only

Answer: D

 

 

Q10. If you withdraw 1,00,000 from your in cash from your Demand Deposit Account at your bank, the immediate effect on aggregate money supply in the economy will be

(a) To reduce it by 1,00,000

(b) To increase it by 1,00,000

(c) To increase it by more than 1,00,000

(d) To leave it unchanged

Answer: D

It will remain unchanged since the money supply includes both cash/currency with public at hand and demand deposits. Withdrawing cash from demand deposit only puts it with the public, hence no change in M.

 

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