IR ORG/REPORTS/INDEX 2020-2011 YEARWISE

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2011

Between India and East Asia, the navigation-time and distance can be greatly reduced by which of the following?

1. Deepening the Malacca straits between Malaysia and Indonesia.

2. Opening a new canal across the Kra isthmus between the Gulf of Siam and Andaman Sea.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b)2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

b

 

 

Recently, the USA decided to support India’s membership in multi-lateral export control regimes called the “Australia Group” and the “Wassenaar Arrangement”. What is the difference between them?

1. The Australia Group is an informal arrangement which aim to allow exporting countries to minimize the risk of assisting chemical and biological weapons proliferation, whereas the Wassenaar Arrangement is a formal group under the OECD holding identical objectives.

2. The Australia Group comprises predominantly of Asian. African and North American countries, whereas the member countries of Wassenaar Arrangement are predominantly from the European Union and American continents.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

d

 

 

With reference to “Look East Policy” of India, consider the following statements:

1. India wants to establish itself as an important regional player in the East Asian affairs.

2. India wants to plug the vacuum created by the termination of Cold War.

3. India wants to restore the historical and cultural ties with its neighbours in Southeast and East Asia.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 1 and 3 only

(c) 3 only

 

 

 

(d) 1, 2 and 3

b

Med

 

 

The “New START” treaty was in the news. What is this treaty?

 

(a) It is a bilateral strategic nuclear arms reduction treaty between the USA and the Russian Federation.

(b) It is multilateral energy security cooperation treaty among the members of the East Asia Summit.

 

 

 

(c) It is a treaty between the Russian Federation and the European Union for the energy security cooperation.

 

 

 

(d) It is a multilateral cooperation treaty among the BRICS countries for the promotion of trade.

a

2014

Which of the following organizations brings out the publication known as “World Economic Outlook?

(a) The International Monetary Fund

(b) The United Nations Development Programme

(c) The World Economic Forum

(d) The World Bank

 

 

Consider the following countries:

1. Denmark

2. Japan

3. Russian Federation

4. United Kingdom

5. United States of America

Which of the above are the members of the “Arctic Council” ?

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only

(b) 2, 3 and 4 only

(c) 1, 4 and 5 only

(d) 1, 3 and 5 only

d

 

 

With reference to a grouping of countries known as BRICS, consider the following statements:

1. The First Summit of BRICS was held in Rio de Jeneiro in 2009.

2. South Africa was the last to join the BRICS grouping.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

 

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

b

 

2015

Which one of the following issues the “Global Economic Prospects” report periodically?
a) The Asian Development Bank
b) The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
c) The US Federal Reserve Bank
d) The World Bank
Solution: d)

Source: http://www.worldbank.org/en/publication/global-economic-prospects

 

 

The ‘Fortaleza Declaration’ recently in the news, is related to the affairs of:
a) ASEAN
b) BRICS
c) OECD
d) WTO
Solution: b)

 

 

38. Consider the following countries
1. China
2. France
3. India
4. Israel
5. Pakistan
Which among the above are Nuclear Weapons States as recognized by the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)?
a) 1 and 2 only
b) 1, 3, 4 and 5 only
c) 2, 4 and 5 only
d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5
Solution: a)

The treaty recognizes five states as nuclear-weapon states: the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, and China (also the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council).
Four other states are known or believed to possess nuclear weapons: India, Pakistan and North Korea have openly tested and declared that they possess nuclear weapons, while Israel has had a policy of opacity regarding its nuclear weapons program.
So, you can conclude that Israel can never be a part of the answer which directly points out to option A as the answer.
Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_on_the_Non-Proliferation_of_Nuclear_Weapons

 

 

‘Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action’ often seen in the news, is
a) a strategy to tackle the regional terrorism, an outcome of a meeting of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.
b) a plan of action for sustainable economic growth in the Asia-Pacific Region, an outcome of deliberations of the Asia-Pacific Economic Forum
c) an agenda for women’s empowerment, an outcome of a World Conference convened by the United Nations
d) a strategy to combat wildlife trafficking, a declaration of the East Asia Summit
Solution: c)

The Platform for Action is an agenda for women’s empowerment. It aims at accelerating the implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women and at removing all the obstacles to women’s active participation in all spheres of public and private life through a full and equal share in economic, social, cultural and political decision-making.
Source: http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/platform/plat1.htm#statement

 

 

With reference to ‘Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC)’, Consider the following statements:
1. It was established very recently in response to incidents of piracy and accidents of oil spills
2. It is an alliance meant for maritime security only
Which of the following statements given above is/are correct?
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 nor 2
Solution: d)

The organization was first established as Indian Ocean Rim Initiative in Mauritius on March 1995 and formally launched on 6–7 March 1997. It is an international organization consisting of coastal states bordering the Indian Ocean.
Priority areas are to promote the sustained growth and balanced development of the region and of the Member States, and to create common ground for regional economic co-operation. Six priority areas were identified at the 11th Council of Ministers, in Bengaluru are:
o Maritime Safety & Security,
o Trade & Investment Facilitation,
o Fisheries Management,
o Disaster Risk Management,
o Academic, Science & Technology,
o Tourism & Cultural Exchanges
o Gender empowerment
Source: http://iora.net/

 

 

 In the Mekong-Ganga Cooperation, an initiative of six countries, which of the following is/are not a participant/ participants?
1. Bangladesh
2. Cambodia
3. China
4. Myanmar
5. Thailand
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 2, 3 and 4
(c) 1 and 3
(d) 1, 2 and 5
Solution: c)

The Mekong–Ganga Cooperation (MGC) was established on November 10, 2000 at Vientiane at the First MGC Ministerial Meeting. It comprises six member countries, namely India, Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. They emphasised four areas of cooperation, which are tourism, culture, education, and transportation linkage in order to be solid foundation for future trade and investment cooperation in the region.
Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mekong%E2%80%93Ganga_Cooperation

 

 

India is a member of which of the following?
1. Asia-Pacific economic corporation.
2. Association of South-East Asian Nations.
3. East Asia Summit
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
a) 1 and 2 only
b) 3 only
c) 1, 2, and 3
d) India is a member of none of them
Solution: b)

India is a member of East Asia Summit. India is a member of ASEAN+6, not ASEAN

 

3. Amnesty International is
a) an agency of the United Nations to help refugees of civil wars
b) a global Human Rights Movement
c) a non-governmental voluntary organization to help very poor people
d) an inter-governmental agency to cater to medical emergencies in war-ravaged regions

Solution: b)

2016

With reference to ‘Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)’, consider the following statements :

  1. It is an organization of European Union in working relation with NATO and WHO.
  2. It monitors chemical industry to prevent new weapons from emerging.
  3. It provides assistance and protection to States (Parties) against chemical weapons threats.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: B

Justification: Statement 1: The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons is the implementing body of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). It is not under EU. So, 1 is wrong.

Statement 2 and 3: The OPCW Member States share the collective goal of preventing chemistry from ever again being used for warfare, thereby strengthening international security.

To this end, the Convention contains four key provisions:

  • destroying all existing chemical weapons under international verification by the OPCW;
  • monitoring chemical industry to prevent new weapons from re-emerging;
  • providing assistance and protection to States Parties against chemical threats; and
  • fostering international cooperation to strengthen implementation of the Convention and promote the peaceful use of chemistry.

https://www.opcw.org/about-opcw

 

 

) Which of the following is/are the indicator/indicators used by IFPRI to compute the Global Hunger Index Report?

  1. Undernourishment
  2. Child stunting
  3. Child mortality

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1, 2 and 3

(d) 1 and 3 only

Solution: C

Justification: To reflect the multidimensional nature of hunger, the GHI combines the following four component indicators into one index:

  • Undernourishment: the proportion of undernourished people as a percentage of the population (reflecting the share of the population whose caloric intake is insufficient;
  • Child wasting: the proportion of children under the age of five who suffer from wasting (that is, low weight for their height, reflecting acute undernutrition);
  • Child stunting: the proportion of children under the age of five who suffer from stunting (that is, low height for their age, reflecting chronic undernutrition); and
  • Child mortality: the mortality rate of children under the age of five (partially reflecting the fatal synergy of inadequate nutrition and unhealthy environments).

http://www.ifpri.org/topic/global-hunger-index

 

  1. The term ‘Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership’ often appears in the news in the context of the affairs of a group of countries known as

(a) G20

(b) ASEAN

(c) SCO

(d) SAARC

Solution: B

Justification:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regional_Comprehensive_Economic_Partnership

 

  1. ‘Global Financial Stability Report’ is prepared by the

(a) European Central Bank

(b) International Monetary Fund

(c) International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

(d) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

Solution: B

Justification: https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/gfsr/

 

  1. ‘Belt and Road Initiative’ is sometimes mentioned in the news in the context of the affairs of

(a) African Union

(b) Brazil

(c) European Union

(d) China

Solution: D

Justification: http://thediplomat.com/tag/one-belt-one-road/

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not a member of `Gulf Cooperation Council’?

(a) Iran

(b) Saudi Arabia

(c) Oman

(d) Kuwait

Solution: A

Justification: It is a political and economic alliance of six Middle Eastern countries—Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, and Oman.

https://www.mea.gov.in/Portal/ForeignRelation/Gulf_Cooperation_Council_MEA_Website.pdf

 

42) Consider the following statements :

  1. New Development Bank has been set up by APEC.
  2. The headquarters of New Development Bank is in Shanghai.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: B

Justification: It was created by BRICS in 2014 and headquartered in Shanghai, China.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Development_Bank

 

  1. ‘Doctors Without Borders (Medecins Sans Frontieres)’, often in the news, is

(a) a division of World Health Organization

(b) a non-governmental international organization

(c) an inter-governmental agency sponsored by European Union

(d) a specialized agency of the United Nations

Solution: B

Justification: It is an international humanitarian-aid non-governmental organization (NGO) and Nobel Peace Prize laureate, best known for its projects in war-torn regions and developing countries facing endemic diseases.

It was founded in France in response to the Biafran War (Nigerian Civil War).

 

 

  1. Consider the following statements :

The India-Africa Summit

  1. held in 2015 was the third such Summit
  2. was actually initiated by Jawaharlal Nehru in 1951

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: A

Justification: India-Africa Summit started in 2008 (first summit) is one of the most spectacular diplomatic exercises hosted by India since the 1983 Non Aligned Movement (NAM) summit.

Second and third summit were held in 2011 and 2015. So, 1 is correct and 2 is wrong.

 

 

16) With reference to the ‘Trans-Pacific Partnership’, consider the following statements :

  1. It is an agreement among all the Pacific Rim countries except China and Russia.
  2. It is a strategic alliance for the purpose of maritime security only.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: D

Justification: Statement 1: It involves 12 pacific-rim countries: the US, Japan, Malaysia, Vietnam, Singapore, Brunei, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Mexico, Chile and Peru.

It’s no an agreement between ALL the Pacific Rim except Russia & China. Only 12 out of nearly 50+ Pacific Rim countries are part of it.

Statement 2: It is a trade bloc. So, 2 is wrong.

 

 

  1. India’s ranking in the ‘Ease of Doing Business Index’ is sometimes seen in the news. Which of the following has declared that ranking?

(a) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

(b) World Economic Forum

(c) World Bank

(d) World Trade Organization (WTO)

Solution: C

 

2) The FAO accords the status of ‘Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHS)’ to traditional agricultural systems. What is the overall goal of this initiative?

  1. To provide modern technology, training in modern farming methods      and financial support to local communities of identified   GIAHS so as to  greatly enhance their agricultural productivity
  2. To identify and safeguard eco-friendly traditional farm practices and their associated landscapers, agricultural biodiversity and    knowledge systems of the local communities
  3. To provide Geographical Indication status to all the varieties of agricultural produce in such identified GIAHS

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 3 only

(b) 2 only

(C) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: B


2017


The term ‘Digital Single Market Strategy’ seen in the news refers to

 

(a)ASEAN

(b)BRICS

(c)EU

(d)G20

ANS:C

The Digital Single Market strategy was adopted by European Union on the 6 May 2015 and includes 16 specific initiatives which aims to open up digital opportunities for people and business and enhance Europe’s position as a world leader in the digital economy.

 

 

 

With reference to ‘Asia Pacific Ministerial Conference on Housing and Urban Development (APMCHUD)’, consider the following statements:

 

  1. The first APMCHUD was held in India in 2006 on the theme ‘Emerging Urban Forms – Policy Responses and Governance Structure’.
  2. India hosts all the Annual Ministerial Conferences in partnership with ADB, APEC and ASEAN.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 only

(b)2 only

(c)Both 1 and 2

(d)Neither 1 nor 2

ANS:D

The 1st APMCHUD was held in New Delhi, India from 13th-16th December, 2006 on the theme of ‘A Vision for Sustainable Urbanization in the Asia-Pacific by 2020’. ‘Emerging Urban Forms – Policy Responses and Governance Structure’ was the theme of the 6th Asia Pacific Conference on Housing and Urban Development held in December 2016.

 

2nd APMCHUD was held in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran, 3rd in Solo, Republic of Indonesia, 4th in Amman, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and 5th in Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Further, APMCHUD is a consultative mechanism on the promotion of sustainable development of Housing and Urban Development in the Asia-Pacific Region established under the aegis and support of UN-Habitat.

 

 

Consider the following statements:

 

  1. The Standard Mark of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is mandatory for automotive tyres and tubes.
  2. AGMARK is a quality Certification Mark issues by the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO).

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 only

(b)2 only

(c)Both 1 and 2

(d)Neither 1 nor 2

ANS:A

In 2010, a certification from the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has been made mandatory for all types of automotive tyres and tubes.

 

AGMARK is a certification mark employed on agricultural products in India, assuring that they conform to a set of standards approved by the Directorate of Marketing and Inspection, an agency of the Government of India. The AGMARK is legally enforced in India by the Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marking) Act of 1937 (and ammended in 1986).

 

 

Consider the following statements:

 

  1. The Nuclear Security Summits are periodically held under the aegis of the United Nations.
  2. The International Panel on Fissile Materials is an organ of International Atomic Energy Agency.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 only

(b)2 only

(c)Both 1 and 2

(d)Neither 1 nor 2

ANS:D

Nuclear Security Summits are an United States-led initiative and are not under the aegis of the United Nations.

 

The International Panel on Fissile Materials (IPFM) was founded in January 2006 and is an independent group of arms-control and nonproliferation experts (and not an organ of International Atomic Energy Agency) from both nuclear weapon and non-nuclear weapon states. Its members include nuclear experts from seventeen countries: Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Iran, Japan, Mexico, Norway, Pakistan, South Korea, Russia, South Africa, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

 

What is the importance of developing Chabahar Port by India?

 

(a)India’s trade with African countries will enormously increase.

(b)India’s relations with oil-producing Arab countries will be strengthened.

(c)India will not depend on Pakistan for access to Afghanistan and Central Asia.

(d)Pakistan will facilitate and protect the installation of a gas pipeline between Iraq and India.

ANS:C

Consider the following statements:

 

  1. India has ratified to Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA) of WTO.
  2. TFA is a part of WTO’s Bali Ministerial Package of 2013.
  3. TFA came into force in January 2016.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 and 2 only

(b)1 and 3 only

(c)2 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:A

 

Broad-based Trade and Investment Agreement (BTIA)’ is sometimes seen in the news in the context of negotiations held between India and

 

(a)European Union

(b)Gulf Cooperation Council

(c)Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

(d)Shanghai Cooperation Organization

ANS:A

Consider the following in respect of Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS):

1. Inaugural IONS was held in India in 2015 under the chairmanship of the Indian Navy.
2. IONS is a voluntary initiative that seeks to increase maritime co-operation among navies of the littoral states of the Indian Ocean Region.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a)1 only

(b)2 only

(c)Both 1 and 2

(d)Neither 1 nor 2

ANS:B

The ‘Indian Ocean Naval Symposium’ (IONS) is a voluntary initiative that seeks to increase maritime co-operation among navies of the littoral states of the Indian Ocean Region by providing an open and inclusive forum for discussion of regionally relevant maritime issues. There are 35 members – navies of the IONS which have been geographically grouped into the following four sub-regions:- South Asian Littorals, West Asian Littorals, East African Littorals, South East Asian and Australian Littorals The inaugural IONS-2008 was held in New Delhi, India on 14 Feb 08. CNS, Indian Navy was designated the Chairman IONS for the period 2008-10. The theme of the IONS-2008 was “Contemporary Trans-national Challenges – International Maritime Connectivities”. Thus statement 2 is correct and statement 1 is not correct.

2018


The Partnership for Action on Green Economy (PAGE), a UN mechanism to assist countries transition towards greener and more inclusive economies, emerged at

 

(a)The Earth Summit on Sustainable Development 2002, Johannesburg

(b)The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development 2012, Rio de Janeiro

(c)The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate change 2015, Paris

(d)The World Sustainable Development Summit 2016, New Delhi

ANS:B

Consider the following countries:

 

  1. Australia
  2. Canada
  3. China
  4. India
  5. Japan
  6. USA

Which of the above are among the ‘free-trade partners’ of ASEAN?

(a)1, 2, 4 and 5

(b)3, 4, 5 and 6

(c)1, 3, 4 and 5

(d)2, 3, 4 and 6

ANS:C

In the Indian context, what is the implication of ratifying the ‘Additional Protocol’ with the ‘International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)’?

 

(a)The civilian nuclear reactors come under IAEA safeguards.

(b)The military nuclear installations come under the inspection of IAEA.

(c)The country will have the privilege to buy uranium from the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG).

(d)The country automatically becomes a member of the NSG.

ANS:A

The term “two-state solution” is sometimes mentioned in the news in the context of the affairs of

 

(a)China

(b)Israel

(c)Iraq

(d)Yemen

ANS:B

Rule of Law Index” is released by which of the following?

(a)Amnesty International

(b)International Court of Justice

(c)The Office of UN Commissioner for Human Rights

(d)World Justice Report

ANS:D

 

What is/are the consequence/ consequences of a country becoming the member of the ‘Nuclear Suppliers Group’?

 

  1. It will have access to the latest and most efficient nuclear technologies.
  2. It automatically becomes a member of “The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)”.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 only

(b)2 only

(c)Both 1 and 2

(d)Neither 1 nor 2

ANS:A


2019


With reference to Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), consider the following statements:

1.      AIIB has more than 80 member nations.

2.      India is the largest shareholder in AIIB.

3.      AIIB does not have any members from outside Asia.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 only

(b)2 and 3 only

(c)1 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:A

 

Which one of the following is not a sub-index of the World Bank’s ‘Ease of Doing Business Index’?

(a)Maintenance of law and order

(b)Paying taxes

(c)Registering property

(d)Dealing with construction permits

ANS:A

 

Which of the following adopted a law on data protection and privacy for its citizens known as ‘General Data Protection Regulation’ in April 2016 and started implementation of its from 25th May, 2018?

(a)Australia

(b)Canada

(c)The European Union

(d)The United States of America

ANS:C

 

Recently, India signed a deal known as ‘Action Plan for Prioritization and Implementation of Cooperation Areas in the Nuclear Field’ with which of the following countries?

(a)Japan

(b)Russia

(c)The United Kingdom

(d)The United States of America

ANS:B

 

Consider the following statements:

1.      The United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) has a ‘Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air’.

2.      The UNCAC is the ever-first legally binding global anti-corruption instrument.

3.      A highlight of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC) is the inclusion of a specific chapter aimed at returning assets to their rightful owners from whom they had been taken illicitly.

4.      The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is mandated by its members States to assist in the implementation of both UNCAC and UNTOC.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

(a)1 and 3 only

(b)2, 3 and 4 only

(c)2 and 4 only

(d)1, 2, 3 and 4

ANS:C

 

The Global Competitiveness Report is published by the

(a)International Monetary Fund

(b)United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

(c)World Economic Forum

(d)World Bank

ANS:C


2020


 

Q40. Consider the following pairs

International agreement/setup                                      Subject

  1. Alma Ata declaration                                    Healthcare of the people
  2. Hague convention                                         Biological and Chemical Weapons
  3. Talanoa dialogue                                           Global Climate Change
  4. Under2 Coalition                                            Child Rights

Which of the pairs above is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 4 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 2, 3 and 4 only

Answer: C

Q75. In which one of the following groups are all the four countries members of G20 ?

(a) Argentina, Mexico, South Africa and Turkey

(b) Australia, Canada, Malaysia and New Zealand

(c) Brazil, Iran, Saudi Arabia and Vietnam

(d) Indonesia, Japan, Singapore and South Korea

Answer: A

 

2020

 

Q74. Consider the following statements:

1. The value of Indo-Sri Lanka trade has consistently increased in the last decade.

2. “Textile and Textile articles” constitute an important item of trade between India and Bangladesh.

3. In the last five years, Nepal has been the largest trading partner of India in South Asia.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 only

(c)3 only

(d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: B

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