Moderate phase:1885-1905:Modern History UPSC PYQ 2011-2020
|With reference to the period of colonial rule in India, “Home Charges” formed an important part of drain of wealth from India. Which of the following funds constituted “Home Charges”?
1. Funds used to support the India Office in London.
2. Funds used to pay salaries and pensions of British personnel engaged in India.
3. Funds used for waging wars outside India by the British.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
|Consider the following statements:The most effective contribution made by Dadabhai Naoroji to the cause of Indian National Movement was that he
1. exposed the economic exploitation of India by the British.
2. interpreted the ancient Indian texts and restored the self-confidence of Indians.
3. stressed the need for eradication of all the social evils before anything else.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c)1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
- Who of the following was/were economic critic/critics of colonialism in India?
1. Dadabhai Naoroji
2. G. Subramania Iyer
3. R. C. Dutt
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
a) 1 only
b) 1 and 2 only
c) 2 and 3 only
d) 1, 2 and 3
DADABHAI NAOROJI, R. C. DUTT, RANADE, GOKHALE, G. SUBRAMANIA IYER, WERE AMONG THOSE WHO GROUNDED INDIAN NATIONALISM FIRMLY ON THE FOUNDATION OF ANTI-IMPERIALISM BY FASHIONING THE WORLD’S FIRST ECONOMIC CRITIQUE OF COLONIALISM, BEFORE HOBSON AND LENIN.
THE DRAIN THEORY WAS ESTABLISHED BY DADABHAI NAOROJI. INCREASED POVERTY AND LOWER WAGES WERE AMONG THE INDIRECT PRODUCTS OF COLONIAL RULE ACCORDING TO DUTT.
INSIGHTS ALSO ASKED A QUESTION ON THIS IN MARCH SECURE-2015. HTTPS://WWW.INSIGHTSONINDIA.COM/2015/03/07/1-WHICH-NAMES-STAND-OUT-AMONG-THE-LARGE-NUMBER-OF-INDIANS-WHO-INITIATED-AND-CARRIED-OUT-THE-ECONOMIC-ANALYSIS-OF-BRITISH-RULE-DURING-THE-YEARS-1870-1905-ANALYSE-HOW-THEY-INTERPRETED-COLONIALISM-AND/
SOURCE: BIPAN CHANDRA – STRUGGLE FOR INDIA’S INDEPENDENCE, CHAPTER – 7
|What was the purpose with which Sir William Wedderburn and W.S. Caine had set up the Indian Parliamentary Committee in 1893?
(a) To agitate for Indian political reforms in the House of Commons
(b) To campaign for the entry of Indians into the Imperial Judiciary
(c) To facilitate a discussion on India’s Independence in the British Parliament
(d) To agitate for the entry of eminent Indians into the British Parliament
|During Indian freedom struggle, the National Social Conference was formed. What was the reason for its formation?
(a) Different social reform groups or organizations of Bengal region united to form a single body to discuss the issues of larger interest and to prepare appropriate petitions/representations to the government.
(b) Indian National Congress did not want to included social reforms in its deliberations and decided to form a separate body for such a purpose.
(c) Behramji Malabari and M.G. Ranade decided to bring together all the social reform groups of the country under one organization.
(d) None of the statements (a ), (b ) and (c ) given above is correct in this context.
|The Partition of Bengal made by Lord Curzon in 1905 lasted until
(a) The First World War when Indian troops were needed by the British and the partition was ended.
(b)King George V abrogated Curzon’s Act as the Royal Durbar in Delhi in 1911.
(c) Gandhiji launched his Civil Disobedience Movement.
(d)The Partition of India in 1947 when East Bengal became East Pakistan.
Which one of the following movements has contributed to a split in the Indian National Congress resulting in emergence of ‘moderates’ and ‘extremists’?
a) Swadeshi Movement
b) Quit India Movement
c) Non-Cooperation Movement
d) Civil Disobedient Movement
- What was the main reason for the split in the Indian National Congress at Surat in 1907?
(a) Introduction of communalism into Indian politics by Lord Minto
(b) Extremists’ lack of faith in the capacity of the moderates to negotiate with the British Government
(c) Foundation of Muslim League
(d) Aurobindo Ghosh’s inability to be elected as the President of the Indian National Congress
Justification: Standard question on Surat Split.
12th TamiNadu History Textbook
- The `Swadeshi’ and ‘Boycott’ were adopted as methods of struggle for the first time during the
(a) agitation against the Partition of Bengal
(b) Home Rule Movement
(c) Non-Cooperation Movement
(d) visit of the Simon Commission to India
Justification: Straightforward answer.
With reference to Swadeshi Movement consider the following statements:
1. It contributed to the revival of the indigenous artisan crafts and industries.
2. The National Council of Education was established as a part of Swadeshi Movement.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(c)Both 1 and 1
(d)Neither 1 nor 2
Economically, one of the results of the British rule in India in the 19th century was the
(a)increase in the export of Indian handicrafts
(b)growth in the number of Indian owned factories
(c)commercialization of Indian agriculture
(d)rapid inrease in the urban population
EXPLANATION: Economic Impact of British rule- 1. Deindustrialisation – Ruin of artisans and handicraftsmen: cheap and machine made goods imports flooded the Indian market after the Charter Act of 1813 allowing one-way free trade for British citizens. On the other hand, Indian products found it more and more difficult to penetrate the European markets. After 1820, European markets were virtually closed to Indian exports. Even the newly introduced rail network helped the European products to reach the remotest corners of the country. Hence, option (a) is not correct.
Another feature of deindustrialisation was the decline of many cities and a process of ruralisation of India. Many artisans, faced with diminishing returns and repressive policies of the Company abandoned their professions and moved to villages and took to agriculture. This resulted in increased pressure on land. An overburdened agriculture sector was a major cause of poverty overburdened agriculture sector was a major cause of poverty during British rule and this upset the village economic set-up. Hence, option (d) is not correct.
2. Impoverishment of Peasantry – The Govt. was only interested in maximisation of rents and in securing its share of revenue , had enforced the Permanent Settlement in large parts. Transferability of land was one feature of the new settlement which caused great insecurity to the tenants who lost all their traditional rights in land. 3. Development of Modern Industries – It was only in the second half of 19th Century that modern machine based industries started coming up in India. The first cotton textile mill was started in 1853 in Bombay by Cowasjee Nanabhoy and the first jute mill came up in 1855 in Rishra (Bengal).
But most of the industries were foreign owned and controlled by British managing agencies. Hence, option (b) is not correct.
4. Commercialisation of Indian Agriculture – In the latter half of the 19th century, another significant trend was the emergence of the commercialisation of agriculture. Agriculture began to be influenced by commercial considerations. Certain specialised crops began to be grown not for consumption in the village but for sale in the national and even international markets. Commercial crops like cotton, jute, groundnut, oilseeds, sugarcane, tobacco, etc. were more remunerative than foodgrains. Hence, option (c) is correct.