1.WHAT CHARECTERISTICS CAN BE ASSIGNED TO MONSOON CLIMATE THAT SUCCEEDS IN FEEDING MORE THAN 50 PERCENT OF THE WORLD POPULATION RESIDING IN MONSOON ASIA? (2017)
Monsoon plays an important role when it comes to controlling climate in Asia especially South Asian countries such as India. Being a unique phenomenon, there are various features that represent such climate in this part of the world.
Characteristics of monsoonal climate
- Low seasonal variation
Monsoon climate is generally associated with tropical equator and subtropical regions that have lowest seasonal variations. There is no distinctive four seasons that is observed in temperate climates except for a distinct dry and wet season. This phenomenon is attributed to the trade winds that blow throughout the year bringing in stability.
- Dry spells during wet season
The monsoon do not occur continuously after its commencement. Instead there is a time during which a dry spell is observed with no or very less rainfall. It is attributed to low pressure region in Bay of Bengal.
- Reversal of trade winds
In subcontinent, the wind system blows in two patterns: as south west winds that brings moisture and rainfall in India; other as a north eastern winds that signals departure of monsoon from subcontinent. In both the cases rainfall is observed at different places.
- Distinct path and movement
The winds that brings monsoon to Indian subcontinent follows a common path every year regardless of the timing. It also splits into two branches in the form of Arabian sea branch and Bay of Bengal branch that provide rain in different parts. They subsequently merge at a common point before moving ahead into interior.
- Subject to external influence
The monsoons are not independent phenomenon and instead they are highly dependent on weather conditions that occur in other parts of the world. The conditions like El Nino in Pacific Ocean can reduce its rain bearing capacity. Similarly La Nina and Positive Indian Ocean dipole can increase its rainfall intensity.
Thus, the monsoons have an important role in defining the climate of Indian subcontinent. Its effects are felt all over the country especially on economic front.