SCIENCE & TECH PRE 2020-2011 YEARWISE

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956

2011

What is “Virtual Private Network”?

 

(a) It is a private compute network of an organization where he remote users can transmit encrypted information through the server of the organization.

 

 

 

(b) It is a computer network across a public internet that provides users access to their organization’s network while maintaining the security of the information transmitted.

 

 

 

(c) It is a computer network in which users can access a shared pool of computing resources through a service provider.

 

 

 

(d) None of the statements a, b and c given above is a correct description of Virtual Private Network.

 

 

 

 

b

 

 

Regular intake of fresh fruits and vegetables is recommended in the diet since they are a good source of antioxidants. How do antioxidants help a person maintain health and promote longevity?

 

(a) They activate the enzymes necessary for vitamin synthesis in the body and help prevent vitamin deficiency.

 

 

 

(b) They prevent excessive oxidation of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in the body and help avoid unnecessary wastage of energy.

 

 

 

(c) They neutralize the free radicals produced in the body during metabolism .

(d) They activate certain genes in the cells of the body and help delay the ageing process

c

 

 

Which is the difference between asteroids and comets?

1. Asteroids are small rocky planetoids, while comets are formed of frozen gases held together by rocky and metallic material.

2. Asteroids are found mostly between the orbits of Jupiter and Mars, while comets are found mostly between Venus and Mercury.

3. Comets show a perceptible glowing tail, while asteroids do not.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 1 and 3 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

b

 

 

An artificial satellite orbiting around the Earth does not fall down. This is so because the attraction of Earth

(a) does not exist at such distance

(b) is neutralized by the attraction of the moon

(c) provides the necessary speed for its steady motion

(d) provides the necessary acceleration for its motion

d

An artificial satellite orbiting around the earth does not fall down. This is so because the attraction of earth provides the necessary acceleration for its motion. This acceleration is “constant” in magnitude but “changing in direction”. By the launch rocket, immediately before the satellite is established in the predetermined orbit, the speed given to it is 30, 000 km/hr. The speed must be great enough so gravity doesn’t bring the satellite back to Earth , but not so great that the satellite escapes gravity out into space. This means that the speed , which is provided by the rocket is the source of the centrifugal force, and the attraction of the earth holds it from moving away from this centrifugal force, and the attraction of the earth holds it from moving away from this centrifugal force

 

A new optical disc format know as the Blu-ray Disc (BD) is becoming popular. In What way is it different form the traditional DVD?

1. DVD supports standard Definition video while BD supports High definition Video.

2. Compared to a DVD, the BD format has several times more storage capacity.

3. Thickness of BD is 2.4 mm while that of DVD is 1.2 mm.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 1 and 2 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

b

 

 

A married couple adopted a male child. A few years later, twin boys were born to them. The blood group of the couple is AB positive and O negative. The blood group of the three sons is A positive, B positive, and O positive. The blood group of the adopted son is.

 

(a) O positive

 

 

 

(b) A positive

 

 

 

(c) B positive

 

 

 

(d) Cannot be determined on the basis of the given data

a

 

 

Recently, “oilzapper” was in the news. What is it?

 

(a) It is an eco-friendly technology for the remediation of oily sludge and oil spills.

(b) It is the latest technology developed for under-sea oil exploration.

(c) It is a genetically engineered high biofuel-yielding maize variety.

(d) It is the latest technology to control the accidentally caused flames from oil wells.

a

 

 

What is the difference between a CFL and an LED lamp?

1. To produce light, a CFL uses mercury vapour and phosphor while an LED lamp uses semi-conductor material.

2. The average life span of a CFL is much longer than that of an LED lamp.

3. A CFL is less energy-efficient as compared to an LED lamp.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

 

 

 

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

c

 

 

Aspartame is an artificial sweetener sold in the market. It consists of amino acids and provides calories like other amino acids. Yet, it is used as a low-calorie sweetening agent in food items. What is the basis of this use?

(a) Aspartame is as sweet as table sugar, but unlike table sugar, it is not readily oxidized in human body due to lack of requisite enzymes.

 

 

 

(b) When aspartame is used in food processing, the sweet taste remains, but it becomes resistant to oxidation.

 

 

 

(c) Aspartame is as sweet as sugar, but after ingestion into the body, it is converted into metabolites that yield no calories.

 

 

 

(d) Aspartame is several times sweeter that table sugar, hence food items made with small quantities of aspartame yield fewer calories on oxidation

d

 

 

What is the difference between Bluetooth and Wi-Fi devices?

(a) Bluetooth uses 2.4 GHz radio frequency band, whereas Wi-Fi can use 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz frequency band.

(b) Bluetooth is used for Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) only, whereas Wi-Fi is used for Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWAN) only

(c) When information is transmitted between two devices using Bluetooth technology, the devices have to be in the line of sight of each other, but when Wi-Fi technology is used the devices need not be in the line of sight of each other.

(d) The statements (a ) and (b ) given above are correct in this context

a

 

 

The function of heavy water in a nuclear reactor is to

(a) Slow down the speed of neutrons

(b) Increase the speed of neutrons

(c) Cool down the reactor

(d) Stop the nuclear reaction

a

 

 

A genetically engineered form of brinjal, known as the Bt-brinjal, has been developed. The objective of this is

(a) To make it pest-resistant

 

 

 

(b) To improve its taste and nutritive qualities

 

 

 

(c) To make it drought-resistant

(d) To make its shelf-life longer

a

 

 

At present, scientists can determine the arrangement or relative positions of genes of DNA sequences on a chromosome. How does this knowledge benefit us?

1. It is possible to know the pedigree of livestock.

2. It is possible to understand the causes of all human diseases.

3. It is possible to develop disease-resistant animal breeds.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

c

 

 

Satellites used for telecommunication relay are kept in a geostationary orbit. A satellite is said to be in such an orbit when:

1. The orbit is geosynchronous.

2. The orbit is circular.

3. The orbit lies in the plane of the Earth’s equator.

4. The orbit is at an altitude of 22,236 km.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only

(b) 1, 3 and 4 only

(c) 2 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

a

2012

Consider the following statements:  If there were no phenomenon of capillarity

1. It would be difficult to use a kerosene lamp.

2. One would not be able to use a straw to consumer a soft drink.

3. The blotting paper would fail to function.

4. The big trees that we see around would not have grown on the Earth.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only

(b) 1, 3 and 4 only

(c) 2 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

b

 

 

What are the reasons for the people’s resistance to the introduction of Bt Brinjal in India?

1. Bt brinjal has been created by inserting a gene from a soil fungus into its genome.

2. The seeds of Bt brinjal are terminator seeds and therefore, the farmers have to buy the seeds before every season from the seed companies.

3. There is an apprehension that the consumption of Bt brinjal may have adverse impact on health.

4. There is some concern that the introduction of Bt brinjal may have adverse effect on the biodiversity.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 3 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

c

 

 

Which of the following is/are cited by the scientists as evidence/evidences for the continued expansion of universe?

1. Detection of microwaves in space.

2. Observation of redshift phenomenon in space.

3. Movement of asteroids in space.

4. Occurrence of supernova explosion in space.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 and 2

(b) 2 only

(c) 1, 3 and 4

(d) None of the above can be cited as evidence

a

 

 

A team of scientists at Brookhaven National Laboratory including those from India crated the heaviest anti-matter (anti-helium nucleus). What is/are the implication/implications of the creation of anti-matter?

1. It will make mineral prospecting and oil exploration easier and cheaper.

2. It will help probe the possibility of the existence of stars and galaxies made of anti-matter.

3. It will help understand the evolution of the universe.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

b

 

 

 


2013

With reference to ‘stem cells’, frequently in the news, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. Stem cells can be derived from mammals only.

2. Stem cells can be used for screening new drugs.

3. Stem cells can be used for medical therapies.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

b

 

 

Graphene is frequently in news recently. What is its importance?

1. It is a two-dimensional material and has good electrical conductivity.

2. It is one of the thinnest but strongest materials tested so far.

3. It is entirely made of silicon and has high optical transparency.

4. It can be used as ‘conducting electrodes’ required for touch screens, LCDs and organic LEDs.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 and 4 only

(c) 1, 2 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

c

 

 

 

What is the role of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the water purification systems?

1. It inactivates/kills the harmful microorganisms in water.

2. It removes all the undesirable odours from the water.

3. It quickens the sedimentation of solid particles, removes turbidity and improves the clarity of water.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

a

 

 

Biomass gasification is considered to be one of the sustainable solutions to the power crisis in India. In this context, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. Coconut shells, groundnut shells and rice husk can be used in biomass gasification.

2. The combustible gases generated consist of hydrogen and carbon dioxide only.

3. The combustible gases generated from biomass gasification can be used for direct heat generation but not in internal combustion engines.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

a

 

 

Mycorrhizal biotechnology has been used in rehabilitating degraded sites because mycorrhiza enables the plants to

 

  1. Resist drought and increase absorptive area
  2. Tolerate extremes of pH
  3. Resist disease infestation

 

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

d
  • All three options are correct.
  • Option-1:-Re-introduction of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi into agricultural soils has been shown to increase crop yields in nutrient poor soils, increase yields for agricultural plants that have large requirement for nutrients and water, and restore structure and fertility to degraded soils. The resulting soil structure allows air and water movement into the soil, encouraging root growth and distribution, allows intra-aggregate organic matter to be slowly decomposed by microbes and converted into plant-available nutrients, and makes the soil less susceptible to wind and water erosion.
  • Option-2:-Anthropogenic deposition increases the possibility of phosphorus (P) limiting productivity in forest ecosystems. Moreover, inorganic P availability is largely controlled by soil pH and biogeochemical theory suggests that forests with acidic soils (i.e., <pH 5) are particularly vulnerable to P limitation. Results from previous studies in these systems are mixed with evidence both for and against P limitation. Shifts in mycorrhizal colonization and community structure help temperate forest ecosystems overcome an underlying P limitation by accessing mineral and organic P sources that are otherwise unavailable for direct plant uptake.
  • Option-3:-Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) enhance plant growth through increased nutrient uptake, stress tolerance and disease resistance. As an integral part of the root system, they interact with other microorganisms in soil and result in increased root exudation approaching about 25% of the plant dry matter production. Roots support a multitude of microorganisms that, in concert, can have profound influence on growth and survival of the plant. VAM fungi can alter the root exudation pattern, enhance chitinolytic activity and alter photosynthetic/respiratory deficiencies. VAM-positive plants are known to exhibit varied resistance towards soil-borne and foliar pathogens. The known interactions include a number of mechanisms, such as exclusion of the pathogen, lignification of plant cell walls, changed phosphate nutrition resulting in altered exudation by roots, and formation of inhibitory low molecular weight compounds

 

The efforts to detect the existence of Higgs boson particle have become frequent news in the recent past. What is/are the importance/importances of discovering this particle?

1. It will enable us to understand as to why elementary particles have mass.

2. It will enable us in the near future to develop the technology of transferring matter from one point to another without traversing the physical space between them.

3. It will enable us to crease better fuels for nuclear mission.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

a

Option 1:-The Higgs boson has long been thought the key to resolving the mystery of the origin of mass. The Higgs boson is associated with a field, called the Higgs field, theorized to pervade the universe. As other particles travel though this field, they acquire mass much as swimmers moving through a pool get wet, the thinking goes. Option 2 and 3 :-(Scientist are not sure about these discoveries yet so should be considered as Wrong/Doubtful)How many new discoveries will Higgs Boson help to make for the world? Higgs Boson is not a main item that will open the way for teleportation but it will help to understand about mass, item and travel in time and space. In the close or far future, Higgs Boson may help us to create an unbelievable energy source.

 

The known forces of nature can be divided into four classes, viz., gravity, electromagnetism, weak nuclear force and strong nuclear force. With reference to them, which one of the following statements is not correct?

(a) Gravity is the strongest of the four.

(b) Electromagnetism acts only on particles with an electric charge.

(c) Weak nuclear force causes radioactivity.

(d) Strong nuclear force holds protons and neutrons inside the nucleus of an atom.

a

 

 

Which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. Viruses lack enzymes necessary for the generation of energy

2. Viruses can be cultured in any synthetic medium.

3. Viruses are transmitted from one organism to another by biological vectors only.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

a

 

 

Rainbow is produced when sunlight falls on drops of rain. Which of the following physical phenomena are responsible for this?

1. Dispersion

2. Refraction

3. Internal reflection

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

d

 

 

Ball bearings are used in bicycles, cars, etc., because

(a) the actual area of contact between the wheel and axle is increased

(b) the effective area of contact between the wheel and axle is increased

(c) the effective area of contact between the wheel and axle is reduced

(d) None of the above statements is correct

c

 

 

Fruits stored in a cold chamber exhibit longer storage life because

(a) exposure to sunlight is prevented

(b) concentration of carbon diodixe in the environment in increased

(c) rate of respiration in decreased

(d) there is an increase in humidity

c

 

 

With reference to the food chains in ecosystems, which of the following kinds of organism is/are known as decomposer organism/organisms?

 

  1. Virus
  2. Fungi
  3. Bacteria

 

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

b

 

 

Photochemical smog is a resultant of the reaction among

(a) NO2, O3 and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the presence of sunlight.

(b) CO, O2 and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the presence of sunlight.

(c) CO, CO2 and NO2 at low temperature.

(d) high concentration of NO2, O3 and CO in the evening.

a

 

 

Which of the following diseases can be transmitted from one person to another through tattooing?

1. Chikungunya

2. Hepatitis B

3. HIV-AIDS

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

b

 

 

Recombination DNA technology (Genetic Engineering) allows genes to be transferred

1. across different species of plants

2. from animals to plants

3. from microorganisms to higher organisms

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

d

2014

Consider the following pairs :

         Vitamin        Deficiency disease
  1. Vitamin C
:  Scurvy
      2. Vitamin D :  Rickets
      3. Vitamin E :  Night Blindness

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 1, 2 and 3  only

(d) None

a

 

 

Consider the following techniques/phenomena:

1. Budding and grafting in fruit plants

2. Cytoplasmic male sterility

3. Gene silencing

Which of the above is/are used to create transgenic crops?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) None

b

 

 

Which of the following is/are the example/examples of chemical change?

1. Crystallization of sodium chloride.

2. Melting of ice

3. Souring of milk.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 1, 2 and 3  only

(d) None of the above

b

 

 

Which of the following pairs is/are correctly matched ?

Spacecraft                                    Purpose

1. Cassini-Huygens : Orbiting the Venus and transmitting data to the Earth.

2. Messenger : Mapping and investigating the Mercury

3. Voyager 1 and 2 : Exploring the outer solar system.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3 only

b

 

 

In addition to fingerprint scanning, which of the following can be used in the biometric identification of a person?

1. Iris scanning

2. Retinal scanning

3. Voice recognition

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3 only

d

 

 

Which one of the following is the process involved in photosynthesis?

(a) Potential energy is released to form free energy.

(b) Free energy is converted into potential energy and stored.

(c) Food is oxidized to release carbon dioxide and water.

(d) Oxygen is taken, and carbon dioxide and water vapour are given out.

b

 

 

With reference to Agni-IV Missile, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. It is surface-to surface missile.

2. It is fuelled by liquid propellant only.

3. It can deliver one-tonne nuclear warheads about 7500km away.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

 

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3 only

a

 

 

Consider the following diseases:

1. Diphtheria

2. Chickenpox

3. Smallpox

Which of the above diseases has/have been eradicated in India?

 

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 1, 2 and 3 only

(d) None of the above

b

 

 

With reference to technology for solar power production, consider the following statements:

1. “Photovoltaics” is a technology that generates electricity by direct conversion of light into electricity, while “Solar Thermal” is a technology that utilizes the Sun”s rays to generate heat which is further used in electricity generation process.

2. Photovoltaics-generates Alternating Current (AC), while Solar Thermal generates Direct Current (DC).

3. India has manufacturing base for Solar Thermal technology, but not for photovoltaics.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

 

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1, 2 and 3 only

(d) None of the above

a

2015

 Indira Gandhi Peace Prize for Peace, Disarmament and Development for 2014 was given to which of the following?
a) Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
b) Indian Institute of Science
c) Indian Space Research Organization
d) Tata Institute of Fundamental Research
Solution: c)

The Indira Gandhi Prize or the Indira Gandhi Peace Prize or the Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace, Disarmament and Development is the prestigious award accorded annually by India to individuals or organizations in recognition of creative efforts toward promoting international peace, development and a new international economic order; ensuring that scientific discoveries are used for the larger good of humanity, and enlarging the scope of freedom.
The prize carries a cash award of 2.5 million Indian rupees and a citation. The recipients are chosen from a pool of national and international nominees.
Angel Merkel (2013) and ISRO (2014) were the recipients of the award.
Source: http://www.ibtimes.co.in/after-success-mangalyaan-isro-wins-indira-gandhi-peace-prize-2014-614677

 

 

With reference to ‘Near Field Communication (NFC) Technology’, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. It is a contactless communication technology that uses electromagnetic radio fields
2. NFC is designed for use by devices which can be at a distance of even a metre from each other
3. NFC can use encryption when sending sensitive information.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
a) 1 and 2 only
b) 3 only
c) 1 and 3 only
d) 1, 2 and 3
Solution: c)

Near field communication, abbreviated NFC, is a form of contactless communication based on electromagnetic radio fields between devices like smartphones or tablets. Contactless communication allows a user to wave the smartphone over a NFC compatible device to send information without needing to touch the devices together or go through multiple steps setting up a connection.
Bluetooth can connect to devices up to 32 feet away, yet near field communication can connect to devices at a maximum distance of 4 centimeters on average.
Both businesses and individuals benefit from near field communication technology. By integrating credit cards, subway tickets, and paper coupons all into one device, a customer can board a train, pay for groceries, redeem coupons or store loyalty points, and even exchange contact information all with the wave of a smartphone.
Source: http://www.nearfieldcommunication.org/about-nfc.html
http://www.in.techradar.com/news/phone-and-communications/What-is-NFCand-why-is-it-in-your-phone/articleshow/38919446.cms

 

 

. In the context of modern scientific research, consider the following statements about ‘IceCube’, a particle detector located at South Pole, which was recently in the news :
1. It is the world’s largest neutrino detector, encompassing a cubic kilometre of ice.
2. It is a powerful telescope to search for dark matter
3. It is buried deep in the ice.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
a) 1 only
b) 2 and 3 only
c) 1 and 3 only
d) 1, 2 and 3 only
Solution: d)

IceCube is a particle detector at the South Pole that records the interactions of a nearly massless subatomic particle called the neutrino. IceCube searches for neutrinos from the most violent astrophysical sources: events like exploding stars, gamma-ray bursts, and cataclysmic phenomena involving black holes and neutron stars.
The IceCube telescope is a powerful tool to search for dark matter and could reveal the physical processes associated with the enigmatic origin of the highest energy particles in nature. In addition, exploring the background of neutrinos produced in the atmosphere, IceCube studies the neutrinos themselves; their energies far exceed those produced by accelerator beams. IceCube is the world’s largest neutrino detector, encompassing a cubic kilometer of ice.
It is buried beneath the surface, extending to a depth of about 2,500 meters. Burying it deep in ice is important to enhance the precision of the detector.
Source: https://icecube.wisc.edu/science/icecube/detector

 

 

With reference to the use of nanotechnology in health sector, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. Targeted drug delivery is made possible by nanotechnology
2. Nanotechnology can largely contribute to gene therapy
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 nor 2
Solution: c)

Nanosystems have significantly different biological properties from large-sized systems (e.g. implants or microparticles) that could be used effectively to overcome problems in drug and gene therapy. In drug therapy, we face the problems of inefficacy or nonspecific effects; hence, nanosystems are being developed for targeted drug therapy.
In gene therapy using non-viral systems, the main issues are relatively transient gene expression and lower efficiency than viral vectors. Research efforts have focused on understanding the barriers in gene delivery so that non-viral systems can be developed that are as effective as viral systems in gene transfection.
Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0958166905001709

http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/wilmer/research/lutty/nano.html

 

 

 Among the following which were frequently mentioned in the news for the outbreak of Ebola virus recently?
a) Syria and Jordan
b) Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia
c) Philippines and Papua New Guinea
d) Jamaica, Haiti and Surinam
Solution: b)

Source: http://www.e-ir.info/2014/07/26/the-ebola-outbreak-in-guinea-liberia-and-sierra-leone/

Ebola affected countries

 

 

With reference to ‘fuel cells’ in which hydrogen-rich fuel and oxygen are used to generate electricity, consider the following statements :
1. If pure hydrogen is used as a fuel, the fuel cell emits heat and water as by-products.
2. Fuel cells can be used for powering buildings and not for small devices like laptop computers.
3. Fuel cells produce electricity in the form of Alternating Current (AC).

Which of the statements given above is / are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Solution: a)

The purpose of a fuel cell is to produce an electrical current that can be directed outside the cell to do work, such as powering an electric motor or illuminating a light bulb or a city.
One great appeal of fuel cells is that they generate electricity with very little pollution–much of the hydrogen and oxygen used in generating electricity ultimately combines to form a harmless byproduct, namely water alongwith releasing heat.
A single fuel cell generates a tiny amount of direct current (DC) electricity. In practice, many fuel cells are usually assembled into a stack.
If alternating current (AC) is needed, the DC output of the fuel cell must be routed through a conversion device called an inverter.
Source: http://americanhistory.si.edu/fuelcells/basics.htm
http://auto.howstuffworks.com/fuel-efficiency/alternative-fuels/fuel-cell1.htm

 

 

With reference to bio-toilets used by the Indian Railways, consider the following statements:
1. The decomposition of human waste in the bio-toilets is initiated by a fungal inoculum.
2. Ammonia and water vapour are the only end products in this decomposition which are released into the atmosphere.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Solution: d)

Under the bio-toilet concept of the DRDO, the bio-digester tank in every toilet is filled with inoculums containing four types of bacteria. The water trap system in the toilet prevents air from getting into the tank, the human waste is processed by anaerobic bacteria in seven chambers in the tank and the methane gas is allowed to escape into the air.
Source: http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/biotoilets-in-trains-by-2022/article6069104.ece

 

 

H1N1 virus is sometimes mentioned in the news with reference to which one of the following diseases?
(a) AIDS
(b) Bird flu
(c) Dengue
(d) swine flu
Solution: d)

Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the most common cause of human influenza (flu). In June 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the new strain of swine-origin H1N1 as a pandemic. This strain is often called swine flu by the public media.

 

 

The term ‘IndARC’ sometimes seen in the news, is the name of?
a) an indigenously developed radar system inducted into Indian Defence
b) India’s satellite to provide services to the countries of Indian Ocean Rim
c) a scientific establishment set up by India in Antarctic region
d) India’s underwater observatory to scientifically study the Arctic region
Solution: d)

The interaction between the Arctic ice shelf and the deep sea and its influence on climate shift requires detailed studies over an annual seasonal cycle.
Therefore, IndARC, the India’s first underwater moored observatory, has been deployed in the Kongsfjorden fjord, half way between Norway and the North Pole. It will collect real- time data on seawater temperature, salinity, ocean currents and other vital parameters of the fjord.
Source: http://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/indias-arctic-observatory-to-aid-climate-change-studies/article6405727.ece

 

 

2016

80) With reference to ‘Li-Fi’, recently in the news, which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. It uses light as the medium for high-speed data transmission.
  2. It is a wireless technology and is several times faster than ‘WiFi’.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: C

Justification: Statement 1: Li-fi is loosely expanded to Light-Fidelity. Using precisely controlled light modulation, data can be transmitted using regular, visible light.

Statement 2: It will be 10-100 times faster than current-generation WiFi, and also very secure.

http://www.sciencealert.com/li-fi-tested-in-the-real-world-for-the-first-time-is-100-times-faster-than-wi-fi

 

  1. Consider the following statements:

The Mangalyaan launched by ISRO

  1. is also called the Mars Orbiter Mission
  2. made India the second country to have a spacecraft orbit the Mars after USA
  3. made India the only country to be successful in making its spacecraft orbit the Mars in its very first attempt

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: C

Justification: India is the only country to be successful in making its spacecraft orbit Mars in its very first attempt.

India is the first Asian country and ISRO is the fourth space agency to send a satellite to Mars.

www.isro.gov.in/Spacecraft/mars-orbiter-mission-spacecraft

http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/a-faster-cheaper-mars-orbiter/article6442854.ece

 

With reference to `Astrosat’, the astronomical observatory launched by India, which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. Other than USA and Russia, India is the only country to have launched a similar observatory into space.
  2. Astrosat is a 2000 kg satellite placed in an orbit at 1650 km above the surface of the Earth.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution: D

Justification: ASTROSAT is India’s first dedicated multi wavelength space observatory.

Statement 1: This is the first time ISRO is launching a space observatory into space. Before India, NASA, space agencies of the European Union, Japan and Russia have launched similar facilities into the space. So, 1 is wrong.

Statement 2: ASTROSAT with a lift-off mass of about 1513 kg was launched into a 650 km orbit (polar). So, 2 is wrong.

http://www.isro.gov.in/Spacecraft/astrosat

http://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/isro-launches-astrosat-first-space-observatory/article7697707.ece

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_space_telescopes

 

 

  1. India is an important member of the ‘International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor’. If this experiment succeeds, what is the immediate advantage for India?

(a) It can use thorium in place of uranium for power generation

(b) It can attain a global role in satellite navigation

(c) It can drastically improve the efficiency of its fission reactors in power generation

(d) It can build fusion reactors for power generation

Solution: D

Justification: 35 nations are collaborating to build the world’s largest tokamak, a magnetic fusion device that has been designed to prove the feasibility of fusion as a large-scale and carbon-free source of energy based on the same principle that powers our Sun and stars.

The ITER Members—China, the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States—are now engaged in a 35-year collaboration to build and operate the ITER experimental device, and together bring fusion to the point where a demonstration fusion reactor can be designed.

https://www.iter.org/proj/inafewlines

 

  1. What is ‘Greased Lightning-10 (GL-10)’, recently in the news?

(a) Electric plane tested by NASA

(b) Solar-powered two-seater aircraft designed by Japan

(c) Space observatory launched by China

(d) Reusable rocket designed by ISRO

Solution: A

Justification: As per the NASA Website, it is in testing and development phase.

The website says. “Imagine a battery-powered plane that has 10 engines and can take off like a helicopter and fly efficiently like an aircraft. That is a concept being developed by NASA researchers called Greased Lightning or GL-10.”

 

 

  1. Which one of the following is the best description of ‘INS Astradharini’, that was in the news recently?

(a) Amphibious warfare ship

(b) Nuclear-powered submarine

(c) Torpedo launch and recovery vessel

(d) Nuclear-powered aircraft carrier

Solution: C

Justification: It is Indian Navy’s first totally indigenously-designed and built torpedo launch and recovery vessel.

 

 

 

  1. ‘Project Loon’, sometimes seen in the news, is related to

(a) waste management technology

(b) wireless communication technology

(c) solar power production technology

(d) water conservation technology

Solution: B

Justification: Project Loon aims to help connect remote regions of the world to the internet via a network of balloons floating in the sky beaming internet

 

  1. In the context of the developments in Bioinformatics, the term ‘transcriptome’, sometimes seen in the news, refers to

(a) a range of enzymes used in genome editing

(b) the full range of mRNA molecules expressed by an organism

(c) the description of the mechanism of gene expression

(d) a mechanism of genetic mutations taking place in cells

Solution: B

Justification: A transcriptome is the full range of messenger RNA, or mRNA, molecules expressed by an organism.

  • The term “transcriptome” can also be used to describe the array of mRNA transcripts produced in a particular cell or tissue type.
  • In contrast with the genome, which is characterized by its stability, the transcriptome actively changes.
  • In fact, an organism’s transcriptome varies depending on many factors, including stage of development and environmental conditions.

 

  1. Consider the following pairs:

Terms sometimes               Their origin seen in the news

  1. Annex—I Countries   :     Cartagena Protocol
  2. Certified Emissions Reductions :   Nagoya Protocol
  3. Clean Development Mechanism : Kyoto Protocol

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution: C


2017


In the context of solving pollution problems, what is/are the advantage/advantages of bioremediation technique?

 

  1. It is a technique for cleaning up pollution by enhancing the same biodegradation process that occurs in nature.
  2. Any contaminant with heavy metals such as cadmium and lead can be readily and completely treated by bioremediation using microorganisms.
  3. Genetic engineering can be used to create microorganisms specifically designed for bioremediation.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a)1 only

(b)2 and 3 only

(c)1 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:C

Statement 1 is correct. Bioremediation is treatment that uses naturally occurring organisms to break down hazardous substances into less toxic or non-toxic substances. It uses microorganisms to degrade organic contaminants in soil, groundwater, sludge, and solids. The microorganisms break down contaminants by using them as an energy source or cometabolizing them with an energy source.

 

Statement 2 is not correct. Not all contaminants are easily treated by bioremediation using microorganisms. For example, heavy metals such as cadmium and lead are not readily absorbed or captured by microorganisms.

Statement 3 is correct. Genetic engineering has been used to create organisms designed for specific purposes. For e.g. bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans (the most radioresistant organism known) has been modified to consume and digest toluene and ionic mercury from highly radioactive nuclear waste.

 

 

With reference to agriculture in India, how can the technique of ‘genome sequencing’, often seen in the news, be used in the immediate future?

 

  1. Genome sequencing can be used to identify genetic markers for disease resistance and drought tolerance in various crop plants.
  2. This technique helps in reducing the time required to develop new varieties of crop plants.
  3. It can be used to decipher the host-pathogen relationships in crops.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a)1 only

(b)2 and 3 only

(c)1 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:D

All the statements are correct. Genome sequencing is figuring out the order of DNA nucleotides, or bases, in a genome—the order of As, Cs, Gs, and Ts that make up an organism’s DNA.

 

Genome sequencing of wild varieties of plants can be used to identify disease resistance and drought tolerance genes in various plants and develop new varieties of crop plants in lesser time. Genome sequencing of cop plants can be helpful in deciphering and understanding the host-pathogen realationship in crops.

 

 

The terms ‘Event Horizon’, ‘Singularity’, ‘String Theory’ and ‘Standard Model’ are sometimes seen in the news in the context of

 

(a)Observation and understanding of the Universe

(b)Study of the solar and the lunar eclipses

(c)Placing satellites in the orbit of the Earth

(d)Direct transfer of subsidies to poor people will become very effective

ANS:A

The terms – ‘Event Horizon’ – boundary in space-time, ‘Singularity’ – location in space-time where the gravitational field of a celestial body becomes infinite, ‘String Theory’ – links together all physical aspects, and ‘Standard Model’ – unifying the four fundamental forces, are related to the observations and understanding of the Univers

 

 

 

Consider the following statements:

 

  1. In tropical regions, Zika virus disease is transmitted by the same mosquito that transmits dengue.
  2. Sexual transmission of Zika virus disease is possible.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 only

(b)2 only

(c)Both 1 and 2

(d)Neither 1 nor 2

ANS:C

Zika virus is primarily transmitted to people through the bite of an infected mosquito from the Aedes genus, mainly Aedes aegypti in tropical regions. This is the same mosquito that transmits dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever.

 

Although Zika virus is primarily transmitted through mosquitoes, it can also be sexually transmitted as well.

 

 

What is the purpose of ‘evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA)’ project?

 

(a)To detect neutrinos

(b)To detect gravitational waves

(c)To detect the effectiveness of missile defence system

(d)To study the effect of solar flares on our communication systems

ANS:B

eLISA is a spectacular plan of setting into space three spacecraft, a mother and two daughter spacecraft, which will fly in a triangular formation, trailing the earth in its orbit around the sun at a distance of over 50 million km. Laser interferometers will accurately measure changes in the distance between these cubes. If they should be affected by a gravitational wave, the minute changes in this distance are measure by the interferometer.

In India, it is legally mandatory for which of the following to report on cyber security incidents?

 

  1. Service providers
  2. Data centres
  3. Body corporate

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a)1 only

(b)1 and 2 only

(c)3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:D

The Indian Computer Emergency Response Team shall serve as the national agency for

 

performing the following functions in the area of cyber security,–

(a) collection, analysis and dissemination of information on cyber incidents;

(b) forecast and alerts of cyber security incidents;

(c) emergency measures for handling cyber security incidents;

(d) coordination of cyber incidents response activities;

(e) issue guidelines, advisories, vulnerability notes and white papers relating to information

security practices, procedures, preventation, response and reporting of cyber incidents;

(f) such other functions relating to cyber security as may be prescribed.

 

 

What is the application of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Technology?

 

(a)Production of biolarvicides

(b)Manufacture of biodegradable plastics

(c)Reproductive cloning of animals

(d)Production of organisms free of disease

ANS:C

Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) are used to create digital display in many devices. What are the advantages of OLED displays over Liquid Crystal displays?

 

  1. OLED displays can be fabricated on flexible plastic substrates.
  2. Roll-up displays embedded in clothing can be made using OLEDs.
  3. Transparent displays are possible using OLEDs.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a)1 and 3 only

(b)2 only

(c)1, 2 and 3

(d)None of the above statements is correct

ANS:C

All the three statements are correct with regard to OLED and they are the disadvatages of LCDs. Flexible Organic Light Emitting Diodes (FOLED) fabricated on flexible plastic substates can be bent or rolled while operating. The manufacturing process of OLEDs is different to those of LCD technology. OLEDs can be printed onto almost any substrate with inkjet printer technology. That is why new applications like displays embedded in clothes or roll-up displays are possible. LCD technology engages a backlight, whereas OLED has no backlighting function. Hence it can be used for making transparent displays.

2018


With reference to India’s satellite launch vehicles, consider the following statements:

 

  1. PSLVs launch the satellite useful for Earth resources monitoring whereas GSLVs are designed mainly to launch communication satellites.
  2. Satellites launched by PSLV appear to remain permanently fixed in the same position in the sky, as viewed from a particular location in Earth.
  3. GSLV Mk III is a four-staged launch vehicle with the first and third stages using solid rocket motors; and the second and fourth stages using liquid rocket engines.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 only

(b)2 and 3

(c)1 and 2

(d)3 only

ANS:A

Both PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) and GSLV (Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle) are the satellite-launch vehicles (rockets) developed by ISRO. PSLV is designed mainly to deliver the “earth-observation” or “remote-sensing” satellites with lift-off mass of up to about 1750 Kg to Sun-Synchronous circular polar orbits of 600-900 Km altitude. Apart from launching the remote sensing satellites to Sun-synchronous polar orbits, the PSLV is also used to launch the satellites of lower lift-off mass of up to about 1400 Kg to the elliptical Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). The GSLV is designed mainly to deliver the communication-satellites to the highly elliptical (typically 250 x 36000 Km) Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). So, statement 1 is true. PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) is an indigenously-developed expendable launch system of the ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization). It comes in the category of medium-lift launchers with a reach up to various orbits, including the Geo Synchronous Transfer Orbit, Lower Earth Orbit, and Polar Sun Synchronous Orbit. So, the second statement that satellites launched by PSLV appear to be fixed (geostationary satellite) is not true. GSLV Mk III is a three-stage heavy lift launch vehicle developed by ISRO. The vehicle has two solid strap-ons, a core liquid booster and a cryogenic upper stage.

“3D printing” has applications in which of the following?

 

  1. Preparation of confectionery items
  2. Manufacture of bionic ears
  3. Automotive industry
  4. Reconstructive surgeries
  5. Data processing technologies

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a)1, 3 and 4 only

(b)2, 3 and 5 only

(c)1 and 4 only

(d)1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

ANS:D

  • 3D printing or additive manufacturing is a process of making three dimensional solid objects from a digital file. The creation of a 3D printed object is achieved by laying down successive layers of material until the object is created. Each of these layers can be seen as a thinly sliced horizontal cross-section of the eventual object.
  • Recently 3-D printed food restaurant has come up in Netherlands.
  • In America, 3D printed bionic ear was generated via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear.
  • Industrial 3D printers have opened new paths at each stage of production of motor vehicles; from the functional prototyping phases, design, and tooling production to parts manufacturing, the automotive industry is one of the pioneers in the use and integration of 3D printing in its processes.
  • 3 D printing has been used in reconstructive surgery to help repair damaged tissue for example in cases of birth defects or traumatic injuries to severe burns or disease.
  • 3 D printing is used to produce computer parts (such as circuit boards) which are used in data processing.

 

Q.  When the alarm of your smartphone rings in the morning, you wake up and tap it to stop the alarm which causes your geyser to be switched on automatically. The smart mirror in your bathroom shows the day’s weather and also indicates the level of water in your overhead tank. After you take some groceries from your refrigerator for making breakfast, it recognises the shortage of stock in it and places an order for the supply of fresh grocery items. When you step out of your house and lock the door, all lights, fans, geysers and AC machines get switched off automatically. On your way to office, your car warns you about traffic congestion ahead and suggests an alternative route, and if you are late for a meeting, it sends a message to your office accordingly

 

In the context of emerging communication technologies, which one of the following terms best applies to the above scenario?

(a)Border Gateway Protocol

(b)Internet of Things

(c)Internet Protocol

(d)Virtual Private Network

ANS:C

 

Consider the following pairs:

 

Terms sometimes see in news Context/Topic

Belle II experiment : Artificial Intelligence
2. Blockchain technology : Digital/Cryptocurrency
3. CRISPR – Cas9 : Particle Physics

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

(a)1 and 3 only

(b)2 only

(c)2 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:B

  • The Belle II experiment is a particle physics experiment designed to study the properties of B mesons (heavy particles containing a bottom quark). Belle II is the successor to the Belle experiment, and is currently being commissioned at the SuperKEKB accelerator complex at KEK in Tsukuba, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan.
  • Blockchain technology can be integrated into multiple areas. The primary use of blockchains today is as a distributed ledger for cryptocurrencies, most notably bitcoin. While a few central banks, in countries and regions such as India, China, Hong Kong, United States, Sweden, Singapore, South Africa and the United Kingdom are studying issuance of a Central Bank Issued Cryptocurrency (CICC).
  • CRISPR-Cas9 is a genome editing tool. It is short for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated protein 9.

 

Consider the following statements:

 

  1. Light is affected by gravity.
  2. The Universe is constantly expanding.
  3. Matter warps its surrounding space-time.

Which of the above is/are the prediction/predictions of Albert Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity, often discussed in media?

(a)1 and 2 only

(b)3 only

(c)1 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:D

 

With reference to the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS), consider the following statements:

  1. IRNSS has three satellites in geostationary and four satellites in geosynchronous orbits.
  2. IRNSS covers entire India and about 5500 sq. km beyond its borders.
  3. India will have its own satellite navigation system with full global coverage by the middle of 2019.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 only

(b)1 and 2 only

(c)2 and 3 only

(d)None

ANS:A

  • Statement 1 is correct: The space segment consists of the IRNSS constellation of Seven satellites, NavIC. Three satellites are located in suitable orbital slots in the geostationary orbit and the remaining four are located in geosynchronous orbits with the required inclination and equatorial crossings in two different planes.
  • Statement 2 is not correct: IRNSS is an independent regional navigation satellite system being developed by India. It is designed to provide accurate position information service to users in India as well as the region extending up to 1500 km from its boundary, which is its primary service area. An Extended Service Area lies between primary service area and area enclosed by the rectangle from Latitude 30 deg South to 50 deg North, Longitude 30 deg East to 130 deg East.
  • Statement 3 is not correct: India will not have its own satellite navigation system with full global coverage by the middle of 2019.

 

The term “sixth mass extinction/sixth extinction” is often mentioned in the news in the context of the discussion of

 

(a)Widespread monoculture practices in agriculture and large-scale commercial farming with indiscriminate use of chemicals in many parts of the world that may result in the loss of good native ecosystems.

(b)Fears of a possible collision of a meteorite with the Earth in the near future in the mannere it happened 65 million years ago that caused the mass extinction of many species including those of dinosaurs.

(c)Large scale cultivation of genetically modified crops in many parts of the world and promoting their cultivation in other parts of the world which may cause the disappearance of good native crop plants and the loss of food biodiversity.

(d)Mankind’s over-exploitation/misuse of natural resources, framentation/loss of natural habitats, destruction of ecosystems, pollution and global climate change.

ANS:D

 

The terms ‘WannaCry, Petya and EternalBlue’ sometimes mentioned in the news recently are related to

 

(a)Exoplanets

(b)Cryptocurrency

(c)Cyber attacks

(d)Mini satellites

ANS:C

In which of the following areas can GPS technology be used?

 

  1. Mobile phone operations
  2. Banking operations
  3. Controlling the power grids

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a)1 only

(b)2 and 3 only

(c)1 and 3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:D

 

What is “Terminal High Altitude Area Defence (THAAD)”, sometimes seen in the news?

 

(a)An Israeli radar system

(b)India’s indigenous anti-missile programme

(c)An American anti-missile system

(d)A defence collaboration between Japan and South Korea

ans:C

 

 

 


2019


With reference to communications technologies, what is/are the difference/differences between LTE (Long-Term Evolution) and VoLTE (Voice over Long-Term Evolution)?

1.      LTE is commonly marketed as 3G and VoLTE is commonly marketed as advanced 3G.

2.      LTE is data-only technology and VoLTE is voice-only technology.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a)1 only

(b)2 only

(c)Both 1 and 2

(d)Neither 1 nor 2

ANS:D

 

In the context of digital technologies for entertainment, consider the following statements:

1.      In Augmented Reality (AR), a simulated environment is created and the physical world is completely shut out.

2.      In Virtual Reality (VR), images generated from a computer are projected onto real-life objects or surroundings.

3.      AR allows individuals to be present in the world and improves the experience using the camera of smart-phones or PC.

4.      VR closes the world, and transposes an individual, providing complete immersion experience.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 and 2 only

(b)3 and 4

(c)1, 2 and 3

(d)4 only

ANS:B

 

The word ‘Denisovan’ is sometimes mentioned in media in reference to

(a)fossils of a kind of dinosaurs

(b)an early human species

(c)a cave system found in North-East India

(d)a geological period in the history of Indian subcontinent

ANS:B

 

With reference to the recent developments in science, which one of the following statements is not correct?

(a)Functional chromosomes can be created by joining segments of DNA taken from cells of different species.

(b)Pieces of artificial functional DNA can be created in laboratories.

(c)A piece of DNA taken out from an animal cell can be made to replicate outside a living cell in a laboratory.

(d)Cells taken out from plants and animals can be made to undergo cell division in laboratory petri dishes.

ANS:A

 

Consider the following statements:

A digital signature is

1.      an electronic record that identifies the certifying authority issuing it

2.      used to serve as a proof of identity of an individual to access information or serve on Internet

3.      an electronic method of signing an electronic document and ensuring that the original content is unchanged

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)1 only

(b)2 and 3 only

(c)3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:C

 

In the context of wearable technology, which of the following tasks is/are accomplished by wearable devices?

1.      Location identification of a person

2.      Sleep monitoring of a person

3.      Assisting the hearing impaired person

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a)1 only

(b)2 and 3 only

(c)3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:D

 

‘RNA interference (RNAi)’ technology has gained popularity in the last few years. Why?

1.      It is used in developing gene silencing therapies.

2.      It can be used in developing therapies for the treatment of cancer.

3.      It can be used to develop hormone replacement therapies.

4.      It can be used to produce crop plants that are resistant to viral pathogens.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a)1, 2 and 4

(b)2 and 3

(c)1 and 3

(d)1 and 4 only

ANS:A

 

Recently, scientists observed the merger of giant ‘blackholes’ billions of light-years away from the Earth. What is the significance of this observation?

(a)‘Higgs boson particles’ were detected.

(b)‘Gravitational waves’ were detected.

(c)Possibility of inter-galactic space travel through ‘wormhole’ was confirmed.

(d)It enabled the scientists to understand ‘singularity’.

ANS:B

 

Which of the following are the reasons for the occurrence of multi-drug resistance in microbial pathogens in India?

1.      Genetic predisposition of some people

2.      Taking incorrect doses of antibiotics to cure diseases

3.      Using antibiotics in livestock farming

4.      Multiple chronic diseases in some people

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a)1 and 2

(b)2 and 3 only

(c)1, 3 and 4

(d)2, 3 and 4

ANS:B

What is Cas9 protein that is often mentioned in news?

(a)A molecular scissors used in targeted gene editing

(b)A biosensor used in the accurate detection of pathogens in patients

(c)A gene that makes plants pest-resistant

(d)A herbicidal substance synthesized in genetically modified crops

ANS:A

 

Which one of the following statements is not correct?

(a)Hepatitis B virus is transmitted much like HIV.

(b)Hepatitis B, unlike Hepatitis C, does not have a vaccine.

(c)Globally, the number of people infected with Hepatitis B and C viruses are several times more than those infected with HIV.

(d)Some of those infected with Hepatitis B and C viruses do not show the symptoms for many years.

ANS:B

 

For the measurement/ estimation of which of the following are satellite images/remote sensing data used?

1.      Chlorophyll content in the vegetation of a specific location

2.      Greenhouse gas emissions from rice paddies of a specific location

3.      Land surface temperatures of a specific location

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a)1 only

(b)2 and 3 only

(c)3 only

(d)1, 2 and 3

ANS:D


2020


Q17. In the context of the recent advances in human reproductive technology, Pronuclear transfer technology is used for:

(a) Fertilization of egg into vitro by the donor sperm

(b) Genetic modification of sperm producing cells

(c) Development of stem cells into functional embryos

(d) Prevention of mitochondrial diseases in offspring

Answer: D

In pronuclear transfer, the mother’s egg is first fertilized with the father’s sperm, producing a zygote. The pronuclei of the egg and sperm are then removed from the zygote and inserted into a donor egg that has been fertilized and has had its own nucleus removed (a pronucleus is the nucleus of the egg or sperm at the stage of fertilization prior to nucleus fusion). The zygote derived from the donor egg is then implanted into the mother’s uterus. It is NOT fully in vitro.

Option D is correct, this is a new strategy to prevent transmission of mitochondrial diseases in offspring, see https://academic.oup.com/hmg/article/20/R2/R168/640414

 

 

Q18. With the present state of development Artificial Intelligence can effectively do which of the following?

  1. Bring down electricity consumption in industrial units
  2. Create meaningful short stories and songs
  3. Disease diagnosis
  4. Text to speech conversation
  5. Wireless transmission of electrical energy

Select the correct answer using the given code below-

(a) 1, 2, 3 and 5 only

(b) 1, 3 and 4 only

(c) 2, 4 and 5 only

(d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Answer: D

S1: In buildings and factories, AI can monitor and collect information about energy consumption in the form of numbers, text, images and videos. Evaluating what is observed, AI can manage energy usage, reducing it during peak hours, for example. Problems such as bottlenecks can be identified and equipment failures detected – even before they happen.

S2: Here is the evidence for AI creating meaningful short stories https://www.forbes.com/sites/bernardmarr/2019/03/29/artificial-intelligence-can-now-write-amazing-content-what-does-that-mean-for-humans/#1d84108450ab

S3 and S4: AI is widely used in text-to-speech conversion and disease diagnosis.

S5: You can couple two systems to recharge one of them via electromagnetic field. The area remains underdeveloped but it has been shown to be technically possible.

See https://www.theverge.com/ces/2017/1/6/14194922/dell-latitutde-7285-laptop-wireless-charging-battery-keyboard-ces-2017

 

Q19. With reference to the “Visible Light Communication” technology, Which of the following statements are correct?

  1. VLC uses electromagnetic spectrum wavelengths 375 to 780 nm
  2. VLC is known as long range optical wireless communication
  3. VLC can transmit large amounts of data faster than bluetooth
  4. VLC has no electromagnetic interference

Select the correct answer using the given code below-

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only

(b) 1, 2 and 4 only

(c) 1, 3 and 4 only

(d) 2, 3 and 4 only

Answer: C

S1 and S2: Visible light communication (VLC) is a data communications variant which uses visible light between 400 and 800 THz (780–375 nm). VLC is a subset of optical wireless communications technologies. But, it is short-range communication. So, S2 is wrong.

S3: The technology uses fluorescent lamps to transmit signals at 10 kbit/s, or LEDs for up to 500 Mbit/s over short distances. But, types of VLC such as Li-Fi can transmit signals at several MBps, much faster than Bluetooth which can transfer only upto 25 Mbit/s, so 3 is correct.

Also, aside from the size of the visible light spectrum, light travels 186,000 miles per second, which is way faster than the 344 meters per second traveled by radio waves in air (used by Bluetooth). See this piece as well which claims VLC is a fast way of transmitting the internet https://www.ee.ucl.ac.uk/pilab/research-1/visible-light-communications

S4: Visible Light Communication (VLC) is a preferred communication technique because of its high bandwidth and immunity to interference from electromagnetic sources. So, 4 is correct. See https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352864816300335

 

Q20. With reference to the Blockchain Technology, consider the following statements:

  1. It is a public ledger that everyone can inspect, which no single user controls
  2. The structure and design of blockchain is such that all the data in it are about cryptocurrency only
  3. Applications that depend on the basic features of blockchain can be developed without anybody’s permission

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 1 and 2 only

(c) 2 only

(d) 1 and 3 only

Answer: D

A blockchain is a decentralized, distributed, and oftentimes public, digital ledger consisting of records called blocks that is used to record transactions across many computers so that any involved block cannot be altered retroactively, without the alteration of all subsequent blocks.

This allows the participants to verify and audit transactions independently and relatively inexpensively. A blockchain database is managed autonomously using a peer-to-peer network and a distributed timestamping server. They are authenticated by mass collaboration powered by collective self-interests. Such a design facilitates robust workflow where participants’ uncertainty regarding data security is marginal.

The great advantage to an open, permissionless, or public, blockchain network is that guarding against bad actors is not required and no access control is needed. This means that applications can be added to the network without the approval or trust of others, using the blockchain as a transport layer.

S2 is clearly wrong, Blockchain can be used for a variety of purposes of which cryptocurrency is only one of them.

 

 

Q17. In the context of the recent advances in human reproductive technology, Pronuclear transfer technology is used for:

(a) Fertilization of egg into vitro by the donor sperm

(b) Genetic modification of sperm producing cells

(c) Development of stem cells into functional embryos

(d) Prevention of mitochondrial diseases in offspring

Answer: D

In pronuclear transfer, the mother’s egg is first fertilized with the father’s sperm, producing a zygote. The pronuclei of the egg and sperm are then removed from the zygote and inserted into a donor egg that has been fertilized and has had its own nucleus removed (a pronucleus is the nucleus of the egg or sperm at the stage of fertilization prior to nucleus fusion). The zygote derived from the donor egg is then implanted into the mother’s uterus. It is NOT fully in vitro.

Option D is correct, this is a new strategy to prevent transmission of mitochondrial diseases in offspring,

 

Q7. Which of the following statements are correct regarding the general difference between plant cells and animal cells?

  1. Plant cells have cellulose cell walls whilst animal cells do not.
  2. Plant cells do not have plasma membrane unlike animals cells which do
  3. Mature plant cell has one large vacuole whilst animal cell has many small vacuoles

Select the correct answer using the given code below-

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: C

S1 and S2: Cells are the basic unit of a living organism and where all life processes are carried out.

Animal cells and plant cells share the common components of a nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondria and a cell membrane.

Plant cells have three extra components, a vacuole, chloroplast and a cell wall.

S3: Vacuoles are storage bubbles found in cells. They are found in both animal and plant cells but are much larger in plant cells. Vacuoles might store food or any variety of nutrients a cell might need to survive.

 

 

Q5 What is the importance of using pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in India?

  1. These vaccines are effective against pneumonia as well as meningitis and sepsis.
  2. Dependence on antibiotics that are not effective against drug-resistant bacteria can be reduced.
  3. These vaccines have no side effects and cause no allergic reactions

Select the correct answer using the given code below-

(a) 1 only

(b) 1 and 2 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: B

 

Q3. The experiment will employ a trio of spacecraft flying in formation in the shape of equilateral triangle that has sides one million km long, with lasers shining between the craft.” the experiment in the question refers to?

(a) Voyager-2

(b) New horizons

(c) LISA pathfinder

(d) Evolved LISA

Answer: D

LISA Pathfinder was a proof of concept mission with arm size reduced to 40 cm, as compared to the million km long arm in the actual LISA.

The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a mission led by the European Space Agency to detect and accurately measure gravitational waves—tiny ripples in the fabric of space-time—from astronomical sources. LISA would be the first dedicated space-based gravitational wave detector. It aims to measure gravitational waves directly by using laser interferometry.

The LISA concept has a constellation of three spacecraft arranged in an equilateral triangle with sides 2.5 million km long, flying along an Earth-like heliocentric orbit. The distance between the satellites is precisely monitored to detect a passing gravitational wave.

 

 

Q4.  Consider the following statements:

  1. Genetic changes can be introduced in the cells that produce eggs or sperms of a prospective parent
  2. A person’s genome can be edited before birth at the early embryonic stage
  3. Human induced pluripotent stem cells can be injected into the embryo of a pig.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 2 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: D

 

Q1. With reference to the carbon nanotubes, consider the following statements:

  1. They can be used as carriers of drugs and antigens in the human body.
  2. They can be made into artificial blood capillaries for an injured part of human body.
  3. They can be used in biochemical sensors.
  4. Carbon nanotubes are biodegradable

Which of the statements given above are correct?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2, 3 and 4 only

(c) 1, 3 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3, and 4

Answer: D

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