UPSC MODERN HISTORY PYQ 2011-2020 : LAND REFORMS/FEUDAL SYSTEM
|The tendency for increased litigation was visible after the introduction of the land settlement system of Lord Cornwallis in 1793. The reason for this is normally traced to which of the following provisions?(a) Making Zamindar’s position stronger vis-à-vis the ryot.
(b) Making East India Company an overlord of Zamindars.
(c) Making judicial system more efficieant.
(d) None of the (a ), (b ) and (c ) above
|With reference to Ryotwari Settlement, consider the following statements:1. The rent was paid directly by the peasants to the Government.
2. The government gave Pattas to the Ryots.
3. The lands were surveyed and assesses before being taxed.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c)1, 2 and 3
- With reference to Indian history, which of the following is/are the essential elementary elements of the feudal system?
1. A very strong centralized political authority and a very weak provincial or local political authority
2. Emergence of administrative structure based on control and possession of land
3. Creation of lord-vassal relationship between the feudal lord and his overlord
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
THE TERMS FEUDALISM AND FEUDAL SYSTEM WERE GENERALLY APPLIED TO THE EARLY AND CENTRAL MIDDLE AGES—THE PERIOD FROM THE 5TH CENTURY, WHEN CENTRAL POLITICAL AUTHORITY IN THE WESTERN EMPIRE DISAPPEARED, TO THE 12TH CENTURY, WHEN KINGDOMS BEGAN TO EMERGE AS EFFECTIVE CENTRALIZED UNITS OF GOVERNMENT (THE PERIOD IS CLAIMED AS 9TH-15TH CENTURY BY WIKIPEDIA).
BROADLY DEFINED, IT WAS A WAY OF STRUCTURING SOCIETY AROUND RELATIONSHIPS DERIVED FROM THE HOLDING OF LAND IN EXCHANGE FOR SERVICE OR LABOUR (LORD-VASSAL RELATIONSHIP).
USE OF THE TERM FEUDALISM TO DESCRIBE INDIA APPLIES A CONCEPT OF MEDIEVAL EUROPEAN ORIGIN, ACCORDING TO WHICH THE LANDED NOBILITY HELD LANDS FROM THE CROWN IN EXCHANGE FOR MILITARY SERVICE, AND VASSALS WERE IN TURN TENANTS OF THE NOBLES, WHILE THE PEASANTS (VILLEINS OR SERFS) WERE OBLIGED TO LIVE ON THEIR LORD’S LAND AND GIVE HIM HOMAGE, LABOR, AND A SHARE OF THE PRODUCE, NOTIONALLY IN EXCHANGE FOR MILITARY PROTECTION. THE TERM INDIAN FEUDALISM IS AN ATTEMPT TO CLASSIFY INDIAN HISTORY ACCORDING TO A EUROPEAN MODEL.
FEUDALISM, IN ITS VARIOUS FORMS, USUALLY EMERGED AS A RESULT OF THE DECENTRALIZATION OF AN EMPIRE: ESPECIALLY IN THE CAROLINGIAN EMPIRES WHICH BOTH LACKED THE BUREAUCRATIC INFRASTRUCTURE NECESSARY TO SUPPORT CAVALRY WITHOUT THE ABILITY TO ALLOCATE LAND TO THESE MOUNTED TROOPS.
Who among the following was/were associated with the introduction of Ryotwari Settlement in India during the British Rule?
- Lord Cornwallis
- Alexander Read
- Thomas Munro
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(b)1 and 3 only
(c)2 and 3 only
(d)1, 2 and 3
In the British territories in the south there was a similar move away from the idea of Permanent Settlement. The new system that was devised came to be known as the ryotwar (or ryotwari ). It was tried on a small scale by Captain Alexander Reed in some of the areas that were taken over by the Company after the wars with Tipu Sultan. Subsequently developed by Thomas Munro, this system was gradually extended all over south India. Lord Cornwallis was asscoiated with Zamindari/Permanent Settlement.
- With reference to land reforms in independent India, which one of the following statements is correct?
- (a)The ceiling laws were aimed at family holdings and not individual holdings.
- (b)The major aim of land reforms was providing agricultural land to all the landless.
- (c)It resulted in cultivation of cash crops as a predominant form of cultivation.
- (d)Land reforms permitted no exemptions to the ceiling limits.
- Q13. Indigo cultivation in India declined by the beginning of the 20th century because of
- (a) Peasants resistance to the oppressive conduct of planters
- (b) Its unprofitable in the world market because of new inventions
- (c) National leaders’ opposition to the cultivation of Indigo
- (d) Government control over the planters
- Answer: B
- Faced by high prices charged by the British traders for indigo dye, German chemists had already started their search for making synthetic indigo and Adolf Baeyer succeeded in synthesizing it in 1882. This was followed by research by other German chemists, namely, Johannes Pfleger and Karl Heumann in the first decade of 20th century. The synthetic dye was much cheaper and blew the final blow to the natural plant produced indigo dye and indigo crop became a part of history. Now most of the indigo dye used world-over is made synthetically.
- Land reforms :permanent/ryotwari/mahalwari